Osmotic Pressure and Water Potential Investigation

Osmotic Pressure and Water Potential Investigation

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Osmotic Pressure and Water Potential Investigation

Raw data

(mol/l)

SUCROSE

APPLE PIECES

(cm)

SIZE/LENGTH

BEFORE/AFTER

AVERAGE LENGTH

B / A

(g)

MASS

BEFORE /AFTER

AVERAGE MASS

B / A

0

1

5.0 / 4.7

5.0 / 4.76

5.95 /

2

5.0 / 4.9

6.52 /

3

5.0 / 4.7

6.28 /

0,2

1

5.0 / 4.7

5.0 / 4.66

5.89 /

2

5.0 / 4.7

5.48 /

3

5.0 / 4.6

6.29 /

0,4

1

5.0 / 4.9

5.0 / 4.8

5.78 /

2

5.0 / 4.7

6.09 /

3

5.0 / 4.8

6.44 /

0,6

1

5.0 / 4.8

5.0 / 4.76

5.98 /

2

5.0 / 4.8

5.90 /

3

5.0 / 4.7

6.00 /

0,8

1

5.0 / 4.8

5.0 / 4.76

5.45 /

2

5.0 / 4.7

6.65 /

3

5.0 / 4.8

6.57 /

1

1

5.0 / 4.8

5.0 / 4.83

6.91 /

2

5.0 / 4.8

6.79 /

3

5.0 / 4.9

6.61 /



Results / Data
==============

[IMAGE]

We put samples of apple and potato tissue in 6 different sucrose
solutions of different molarities; we measured the change in mass. We
were waiting for half an hour and observing what happened with them.
We put our results in a graph and a table, but they do not seem to be
accurate.

Observations:

In some concentrations the apple and

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Related Searches

123helpme.com/search.asp?text=potato+pieces">potato pieces were floating
(between 0,6 and 0,8). That is because they lost a lot of their water
– the concentrations were too concentrated for them.

Graph 1. Aprox. change of apple mass

The equilibrium point (where the concentration of sucrose did not
cause change of mass) for apple was approx. between 0,4 and 0,6

concentration values. For potato

the equilibrium point was approx.

between 0,2 and 0,4 concentration values.



[IMAGE]Where are the errors?
============================

But our results have shown that we have done something wrong. Usually
two results were accurate enough, but the third one was wrong. That
may happen because we did not cut or measure the pieces right. The
concentrations may also not be as they should be. The measurements
also depend on types of apples, because we did not use the same apple
all the time.

Graph 2. Approx. change of potato mass

POTATO MASS AND LENGTH B/A

APPLE MASS AND LENGTH B/A

CONCENTRATION

MASS1
(g)

LENGTH1
(cm)

MASS2
(g)

LENGTH2
(cm)

MASS1
(g)

LENGTH1
(cm)

MASS2
(g)

LENGTH2
(cm)

0

8,44

5

8,73

5,2

6,25

5

6,27

4,77

0,2

7,48

5

7,54

4,87

5,89

5

5,91

4,67

0,4

8,18

5

7,96

4,9

6,1

5

6,14

4,8

0,6

8,01

5

7,59

4,93

5,83

5

5,8

4,77

0,8

7,61

5

7,01

4,83

6,22

5

6,2

4,77

1

8,12

5

7,37

4,73

7,77

5

6,7

4,8

Table 1. The average mass and length values (B/A = before/after)

Explanation and conclusion:

Average masses and lengths may not be accurate enough because we did
not get accurate results in our measurements. The mass was supposed
to be lower at a higher concentration, but it is not always like that.
We cannot be sure about these results and we would maybe have to
repeat this experiment and take much more representative sample.

The results were supposed to show that the mass gets lower at a higher
concentration of solution and it grows at the value 0,0. They do not
confirm the theory.

According to theory, osmotic pressure can be regarded as the tendency
of solution to gain water across an ideal partially permeable
membrane. The osmotic pressure depends on its solute concentration. It
follows that a solution with a high osmotic pressure has a low water
potential. In our case, the water potential is the highest at 0%
concentrated solution.

Plant cells generally have water potential which is lower than of
their surroundings. Their plasma membrane is partially permeable,
letting the water in, but not solutes. The cell wall is, however,
fully permeable to both water and solution.

When such a cell is put into the pure water or a solution whose water
potential is bigger than inside the vacuole, the cell swells, but it
does not burst.

When a cell is put into a solution whose solute concentration is
higher that that of the cell sap, water leaves vacuole by osmosis and
the cell shrinks. So, we did not support the theory with our
experiment.

However, the graph for change in apple mass was approximately supposed
to look like this:

[IMAGE]

Testing the presence of starch and sugar in potato and apple tissue

We can test for the presence of these important compounds in food by
using chemical reagents that react in predictable ways in the presence
of these nutrients.


Test 1 Sugar test-Benedict's solution:


Benedict's solution is used to test for simple sugars, such as
glucose. It is a clear blue solution of sodium and copper salts. In
the presence of simple sugars, the blue solution changes color to
green, yellow, and brick red, depending on the amount of sugar.


When we put benedict’s solution into small amount of apple with
distilled water and heated the test tubes in hot water it turned out
that there is a lot of sugar in the apple. The color changed from
orange to very dark orange.


When we put benedict’s solution into small amount of potato with
distilled water and heated the test tube in hot water it turned out
that there is not so much sugar in it. The color changed from orange
to green-yellow.


We can conclude, that benedict reduces sugar and causes a change of
color.

Test 2 (determining starch) Iodine:

Iodine solution is used to identify the presence of starch. The
solution is yellow-brown but, when it reacts chemically with starch, a
blue-black substance called iodide starch is produced.

When we put few drops of iodine solution in each test tube and in
apple tissue it turned out to be less starch than in potato. That is
because apple has pectin and not starch. The color of apple changed
from orange to brown, and in potato it changed from yellow to
blue-black.

APPLE

POTATO

Before

After

Before

After


Iodine solution
---------------


Iodine solution
---------------

ORANGE

BROWN

YELLOW

BLUE-BLACK

Benedict’s solution

Benedict’s solution

ORANGE

DARK ORANGE

YELLOW

GREEN-YELLOW
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