Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue

Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue

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Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue

Aim

To investigate factors which affect the rate of osmosis.

The main factors which affect osmosis are:

Pressure

Temperature

Surface area

Solute Concentration

Plant Tissue

We will be investigating solute concentration as this is the easiest
factor to measure and will give us the most accurate results. We will
mainly investigate the different rate of osmosis when potato cells are
placed in solution with different solute concentrations. We are going
to use potatoes as they have homologues cells (all their cells are the
same).

Preliminary work

We investigated the rate of osmosis of potato cylinders left in
different solute concentrations.

Our hypothesis was that Rate of osmosis is proportional to the
difference in water potential inside and outside the cell.

Water potential(y) indicates which way water will move in a system.
Water will always move from a high y to a low y. y can be measured in
Kilopascals (kPa). Pure water has a y of 0 kPa. As solute is added, y
is reduced (it becomes a negative number.)

e.g.

[IMAGE]

This is useful because you can add pressure to the equation.

If a pressure of 400 kPa is added to B (due to squeezing), the
equation is

-1000 + 400 = -600

\-600 = -600

Now that the forces are equal, there will be no water movement.

We will measure y using Molar Concentration which has a concentration
of 0 - 1. Pure water has a y of 0M.

Using ’Biology, a functional approach’ by MBV ROBERTS, we deduced that
the y of a potato cell º 0.27M.

The water potential inside the cell is 0.27 M. I predict that there
will be the lowest rate of osmosis at this point and it will get
higher as the solute concentration levels move further away from
0.27M. The rate of osmosis will be higher when there is a greater
difference in water potential.

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Related Searches



We used cork borers to produce potato cylinders from an estima
(general purpose potato. All the cylinders were from the same potato.
We made 9 cylinders. They all had a similar shape, weight and size. We
split these into three groups of three and labelled the cylinders in a
group, 1, 2 and 3. We took three beakers and filled one with a 0M
sucrose solution, one with a 0.6M sucrose solution and one with a 1M
sucrose solution and labelled them, each beaker was filled with 25ml
of solution. We assigned each one of these cylinder groups to a
beaker. We then weighed each cylinder and recorded the results in a
table.

We used a stopwatch to time the experiment. We placed the cylinder
groups into the beakers at ten minute intervals( ten minutes is enough
time take out, dry of any excess surface moisture and weigh one number
group of cylinders. At 0:00 on the stop watch, we put the 1’s in their
respective beakers, at 10:00Text Box: we put the 2;s in and at 20:00
we put the 3’s in. We planned to leave each cylinder in for an hour.
So we scheduled the 1’s to come out at 60:00, the 2’s to come out at
70:00, and the 3’s to come out at 80:00. In between these times, we
weighed the cylinders and entered the results into a table.

To keep the test fair, we put 3 cylinders into each beaker so we could
work out an average % mass change.

To keep the test fair we used cylinders that were the same shape so
the surface area factor would be under control. The same size so the
results could all have the same level of accuracy and the same weight
so that the results could be accurately compared to each other and a
proper % mass change could be worked out.

To keep the test fair, we dried all the cylinders the same way, trying
to avoid under and over drying.

% Mass Change

The results supported my hypothesis. The % mass change increases as
you get further away from 0.27M.

We can conclude from this that the bigger the difference in water
potential, the higher the rate of osmosis.

Hypothesis

I predict that Rate of osmosis is proportional to the difference in
water potential inside and outside the cell..

Explanation

Water potential(y) indicates which way water will move in a system.
Water will always move from a high y to a low y. y can be measured in
Kilopascals (kPa). Pure water has a y of 0 kPa. As solute is added, y
is reduced (it becomes a negative number.)

e.g.

[IMAGE]

This is useful because you can add pressure to the equation.

If a pressure of 400 kPa is added to B (due to squeezing), the
equation is

-1000 + 400 = -600

\-600 = -600

Now that the forces are equal, there will be no waText Box: ter
movement.

We will measure y using Molar Concentration which has a concentration
of 0 - 1. Pure water has a y of 0M.

Using ’Biology, a functional approach’ by MBV ROBERTS, we deduced that
the y of a potato cell º 0.27M.

The water potential inside the cell is 0.27 M. I predict that there
will be the lowest rate of osmosis at this point and it will get
higher as the solute concentration levels move further away from
0.27M. The rate of osmosis will be higher when there is a greater
difference in water potential.

This is what I expect to see for the % mass change per concentration.
I expect to see the lowest % change at 0.27M.

Method

The equipment we used was as follows.

A cork borer

A large estima potato

Forceps

A scalpel

Dishes

Beakers

Sucrose solutions

A stopwatch

We used cork borers to produce potato cylinders from an estima
(general purpose potato. This is because potato cells are homologues
and these were the same type of potatoes used in our previous
experiment All the cylinders were from the same potato and we made 18
cylinders. That was enough cylinders for us to repeat the experiment 3
times for reliability and accuracy. They all had a similar shape,
weight and size. We split these into six groups of three and labelled
the cylinders in a group, 1, 2 and 3. We took six beakers and filled
one with a 0M sucrose solution, one with a 0.2M sucrose solution, one
with a 0.4M sucrose solution one with a 0.6M sucrose solution, one
with a 0.8M sucrose solution and one with a 1M sucrose solution and
labelled them all, each beaker was filled with 25ml of solution. This
range was used to give a broad and accurate set of results and to
coincide with the 0.27M concentration. We assigned each one of these
cylinder groups to a beaker. We then weighed each cylinder and
recorded the results in a table.

We used a stopwatch to time the experiment. We placed the cylinder
groups into the beakers at ten minute intervals( ten minutes is enough
time take out, dry of any excess surface moisture and weigh one number
group of cylinders. At 0:00 on the stop watch, we put the 1’s in their
respective beakers, at 10:00 we put the 2;s in and at 20:00 we put the
3’s in. We planned to leave each cylinder in for an hour. So we
scheduled the 1’s to come out at 60:00, the 2’s to come out at 70:00,
and the 3’s to come out at 80:00. In between these times, we weighed
the cylinders and entered the results into a table.

We then converted the measurements to mass change in %. This is done
because the potato cylinders have different weights and only a
percentage would show the true rate of osmosis.

To keep the test fair, we put 3 cylinders into each beaker so we could
work out an average % mass change. We used cylinders that were the
same shape so the surface area factor would be under control, the same
size so the results could all have the same level of accuracy and the
same weight so that the results could be accurately compared to each
other and a proper % mass change could be worked out. We dried all the
cylinders the same way, trying to avoid under and over drying.

We did the experiment all on the same day so the potato cells would
remain homologous. We took all our samples from the same potato and
used the same cork borer to make all our potato cylinders.

Results

This is the raw data table.

[IMAGE]

This is a brief summary table. (In three parts)

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

Text Box: [IMAGE]

[IMAGE]
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