# A Survey of the River Alyn in Wales

Length: 1997 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

#### Essay Preview

A Survey of the River Alyn in Wales

On Monday 5th of July we went and conducted a survey of the river Alyn
in Wales, in Loggerheads. We looked at 4 river sections and did
several tests to find the velocity, width and depth of the river we
also recorded the sizes of 30 pebbles from each section. We did this
to test a number of hypotheses.

It took us approximately an hour and a half to arrive there and the
weather was bright and warm with little cloud cover, this was quite
unexpected because on previous weeks it had been raining.

The sites we visited were: (187,575)(188,198)(174,617)(196,629)(please
see map on next page)

Hypotheses

· Is velocity related to depth?

· Do the particles in the bedload of a river become more rounded
downstream?

· Is the pebble size related to discharge?

For the first hypothesis I expect to find that the deeper the river
the more velocity, I think this because there is going to be more
water so therefore more pressure in the river.

For my second hypothesis I expect to find that the particles are more
rounded down stream because the friction in the river should wear them
down more and round them off.

And lastly for my third hypothesis I think that the size of the pebble
is not related to discharge because discharge is the amount of water
which flows through the river at any given time and it’s not what
wears down pebble size (this is friction)

Methodology

To measure velocity we had to get an orange and let it flow down a
certain length of the river, we timed how long the orange took to get
to this area.

Equipment:

· 2 ranging poles

· An orange

· A stop clock

· Tape measure

To measure the depth of the river we had to get two ranging poles and
position them at each side of the bank then measured the width of the

MLA Citation:
"A Survey of the River Alyn in Wales." 123HelpMe.com. 11 Dec 2019
<https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=148202>.

## Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

## The Crime Survey for England and Wales Essays

- The Crime Survey For England and Wales (CSEW) An anonymous and confidential household survey revealing unreported crimes and showing that anyone can become a victim. Participants are chosen at random according to postcode, providing a mixed sample from alternative areas and backgrounds. Conducted within a person’s home by an impartial interviewer it provides a more comfortable and familiar setting enabling victims to open up and provide clarity and details of crimes that they may otherwise not have reported, such as sexual offences (ONS,2013)....   [tags: Official Statistics, crimes, universal questioning]

Research Papers
1420 words (4.1 pages)

## Essay on Hard Work conditions in Wales: A Source Analysis

- In certain parts of Wales England times were hard for women, men and children. Age barely played any part in the labor coal mines, nor the fact that they are woman and children that were picked to work in the mines. The different cities in England some mines have different requirement of working for all sex and gender in the pits. In some coal mines for women, children, and men to work in the coal mine they were forced to have not one piece of clothing on while working. Woman had different jobs in the mines they were not allowed to seek out to retrieve the coals pits themselves; it was left up for the men to handle....   [tags: Wales, work conditions, ]

Research Papers
693 words (2 pages)

## Essay The Flood Of The Mississippi River

- The Mississippi river is a Powerful and Ancient river that has changed very much over the millennia it’s been around. The Atchafalaya, which is a distributary of the Mississippi river had to be controlled by building dams and levees in the early 60’s and is still being monitored today. The Atchafalaya was beginning to divert the water in the Mississippi river to it and many people in the United States did not want this as it would virtually destroy the port cities along the Mississippi and therefore destroy the United States economy....   [tags: Mississippi River, River, Atchafalaya River]

Research Papers
1113 words (3.2 pages)

- Customer survey is one of the toughest and mind boggling task many fear doing, especially those who provide services to customers. There have been debates on the best method to be used in ensuring that the survey is accurate. Different methods have been proposed concerning the accuracy of some of the methods used, and no proper consensus reached on the method to use. Different business uses different methods, but in the recent past many surveys have been done using the Likert Scale Questionnaire Method....   [tags: customer survey, service delivery, feelings]

Research Papers
868 words (2.5 pages)

## Divorce Survey Findings Essay example

- Introduction People have always wondered about divorce and its causes and effects. When I was a young girl I used to ask ’’,why do people get married if they are going to get divorced in the future?’’ When I grew up I realized that anyone could go through divorce. Divorce has become a phenomenon that is increasing around the world. Fourteen weeks ago I had not known the real definition of divorce and did not expect to find out all these astonishing facts, results and statistics. I have chosen this topic because it was the one and only opportunity to discover men’s opinions about divorce and women’s, as well....   [tags: Arab, survey, marriage]

Research Papers
1536 words (4.4 pages)

## Essay on Loss and Healing in The River Warren

- Loss and Healing in The River Warren      Each of us, in time, will experience a heart-stopping reality - the death or loss of someone or something we love. Maybe it will be of a family member or just a pet we dearly cherished, but the feelings we have are all too real and all too painful. This loss is probably by far the greatest and most severe emotional trauma we can encounter, and the sense of loss and grief that follows is a healthy, natural, and important part of healing ("Death")....   [tags: River]

Free Essays
1974 words (5.6 pages)

## The Colorado River Essays

- The Colorado River is the seventh longest river. In the 1920’s Western states began dividing up the water in the Colorado River by building dams and divert river flow to San Diego, Phoenix, and other large cities in order to supply water to these cities. In the past the river has been known for being a major source of water and electricity. The Colorado River passes through Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, California, Baja California, and Sonora. During the past decade a drought has been sweeping the Southwest resulting in a lowered river level....   [tags: history, grand river, aqueduct]

Research Papers
1296 words (3.7 pages)

## Satisfaction Survey Research Essay

- Satisfaction Survey Research Current Survey Background Perhaps no other research tool utilized by social scientists is as sensitive to social and technological change as the sample survey. Survey research is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States. Surveys provide critical information to decision-makers in government and business. Polls and their results are widely discussed by the general public and media. Because of the size, complexity, and expense of major surveys, which can include tens of thousands of respondents and exceed \$100 million in cost, surveys inevitably come to reflect social and technological change....   [tags: Survey Research Market]

Free Essays
1472 words (4.2 pages)

## Death Penalty Survey Essay

- Death Penalty Survey It's my belief that people often lack enough information to have an informed opinion, but go ahead and give their opinions anyway. Given the time, money and desire to complete this survey again I'd change my approach. I'd attempt to educate them more on the subject by providing them some detailed information such as factual statistics on both the pros and cons of the death penalty. Thus providing them with a broader background relating to the subject. I feel that by providing factual statistics and historical data that it would greatly add to the validity of the survey....   [tags: Survey Death Penalty Essays]

Research Papers
1549 words (4.4 pages)

## Applied Survey Methods Essay

- Survey Pointers “The rightful concern of statisticians is the use of science to provide relevant information on large populations, to be made available to decision agents within a short period of time and of acceptable quality.” I n this fast changing world, problems in almost all fields of human endeavor have to be solved and resolved on scientific bases. The influence of decisions based on quantitative information has never been more evident than in the present decade especially with the use of modern technology....   [tags: Survey Methods Statistical Theory Essays]

Free Essays
3220 words (9.2 pages)

### Popular Essays

river using a tape measure (this did not start at nought because we
had to tie it to one of the poles) we then measured the depth of the
river every half meter with a meter ruler.

Equipment:

· 2 ranging poles

· Meter ruler

· Tape measure

To measure the size of pebbles in certain sections of the river we had
to pick up a pebble at random every metre across the river, we had to
do this 30 times (if the river was to thin we would do it forwards and
backwards until we had the correct number of pebbles) and then we
would measure the width, height and depth of the pebble. The only
exception to this was our third section of the river as the width of
the river was only 2.2 metres in width and here we would select a
pebble every ten centimetres.

Equipment:

· 2 ranging pole

· Metre ruler

· Tape measure

Results

Depth:

0

0.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

0.5

2.1

5

7

9.7

10

11.1

12

12.5

10.6

5.7

2.6

1.7

This is the result I got from measuring the depth of the first section
of the river

Alyn.

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

20.5

17.5

3

0

0

0

0

7

23

25

25.5

25

0

0

These are the results I got from measuring the depth of the second
section of the river

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

0

0

0

0

0.5

3

3.5

2.5

2

1

0.5

1.1

1.5

1

0.5

3

1

3.8

2

0

0

0

These are the results I got from measuring the depth of the third
section of the river

0

0.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

0

0

0

0

0

2.4

6.3

6.8

13

12.2

12.1

4.9

3.8

1.8

0

0

0

0

These are the results I got from looking at the fourth section of the
river

Pebble size:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

a

7

10

25

15

57

25

10

51

26

2

26

17

11

21

19

18

8

10

20

18

8

13

9

32

18

15

7

20

9

21

B

15

8

13

8

33

12

9

18

21

19

6

15

10

16

20

7

6

8

13

6

7

8

3

13

10

10

5

11

6

19

C

9

3

14

5

11

8

5

15

4

7

2

3

2

6

10

1

0.5

0.5

9

6

4

1

2

8

2

8

2

7

7

5

First 30 pebbles at random from the first section of the river Alyn

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

A

50

95

75

30

55

40

40

26

28

31

25

30

65

64

44

29

52

50

42

40

76

40

95

80

55

60

55

80

35

50

b

25

45

25

25

35

45

12

29

24

14

10

32

42

47

34

21

31

13

12

14

35

19

50

60

31

45

45

60

14

21

c

15

0.5

20

0.3

10

15

0.7

0.8

0.2

0.6

11

0.8

25

15

10

11

10

o.9

11

0.4

0.6

11

0.3

0.7

0.2

15

20

0.3

0.4

0.7

First 30 pebbles at random from the second section of the river Alyn

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

A

30

25

40

34

20

64

30

51

67

34

44

42

40

39

27

40

37

58

74

90

43

53

32

34

35

40

25

42

41

68

b

17

13

25

21

22

41

28

38

20

24

39

32

34

30

17

30

20

39

40

55

32

43

30

24

25

34

24

15

28

37

c

12

54

34

2

9

20

16

19

20

14

24

12

18

11

7

16

17

26

36

24

13

19

17

13

16

16

8

20

21

30

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

A

1.5

2.0

3.2

43

80

110

72

51

20

12

7

18

8

7

12

14

18

76

58

60

60

61

31

39

21

53

32

19

54

130

b

1.2

1.1

1.6

15

65

50

38

39

12

7

4

11

6

5

7

6

9

28

39

39

40

26

24

26

14

26

16

9

36

64

c

0.9

0.3

0.7

17

25

45

12

20

5

6

1

7

2

1

5

4

4

18

20

14

29

24

16

16

0.9

0.7

0.4

0.3

11

56

First 30 pebbles at random from the third section of the river Alyn

First 30 pebbles picked at random from the fourth section of the river
Alyn

VELOCITY:

RIGHT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

LEFT

AVERAGE

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

Velocity of first section of river, overall velocity: 34.6 seconds

LEFT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

1

82

88.7

1

60

49.3

1

32

32.3

2

92

2

41

2

35

3

92

3

47

3

30

Velocity of second section of river, overall velocity: 56.8 seconds

LEFT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

RIGHT

AVERAGE

N/A

1

55

56.7

N/A

2

55

3

60

Velocity of third section of river, overall velocity: 56.7 seconds

LEFT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

RIGHT

AVERAGE

1

47

59

1

46

39.7

1

61

61.7

2

63

2

38

2

62

3

67

3

35

3

62

RIGHT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

LEFT

AVERAGE

1

27

25.3

1

43

40.3

1

37

38.3

2

23

2

30

2

40

3

26

3

48

3

38

Velocity of fourth section of river, overall velocity: 53.5 seconds

RIGHT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

LEFT

AVERAGE

1

27

25.3

1

43

40.3

1

37

38.3

2

23

2

30

2

40

3

26

3

48

3

38

RIGHT

AVERAGE

MIDDLE

AVERAGE

LEFT

AVERAGE

1

27

25.3

1

43

40.3

1

37

38.3

2

23

2

30

2

40

3

26

3

48

3

38

To answer my first hypothesis (is velocity related to depth) I have
decided to compare my average velocity for each river section with my
average depth of each section

Section 1

Average velocity: 34.6 metres per second

Average depth: 6 cm

Section 2

Average velocity: 56.8 metres per second

Average depth: 18.3 cm (I had to not include some measurements due to
the fact that this particular river had an island in the middle which
made the results abnormal)

Section 3

Average velocity: 56.7 metres per second also abnormal due to the
river being too small to get more than on area with a velocity)

Average depth: 1.2 cm

Section 4

Average velocity: 53.5 seconds

Average depth: 7cm

Looking at this, I can see that the depth of the river does not affect
the velocity, for example with section three, the velocity is 56.7
seconds and the average depth is only 1.2cm. Whereas the velocity of
section two similar to that of section three yet the depth of the
river is 17.1 centimetres deeper, this information disproves my first
hypothesis.

Second hypothesis: Do the particles in the bed load of a river become
more rounded downstream?

Earlier I predicted that downstream the pebbles would become more
rounded because of the friction they had endured, I am now going to
investigate this hypothesis by studying my results after examining 30
pebbles at random from each section of the river. If my hypothesis is
correct then the pebbles will also become smaller as they go
downstream because they have been worn, and also most pebble
measurements should be similar. Make sure this is correct I will put
my results in a [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]line graph and compare the peaks

[IMAGE]

looking at the peaks I can see that the further down the river they go
the closer together the different line sections become, this shows
that the pebbles are becoming similar to each other and also that the
edges are becoming less jagged. With some peaks it does not show this
but that could be because the stones have been deposited in the river
some other way, I assume this because these peaks stand out more and
are odd ones out. So therefore particles in the bed load of a river do
become more rounded as they go downstream.

Third hypothesis: is pebble size related to discharge?

To calculate the discharge I have drawn river cross-sections for each
section of the river. To draw these I have used my results and the
rivers in comparison to one another are in scale. To find out the
discharge I have to multiply the average velocity for each river
section with the measured surface value which I calculate by
calculating the area of the cross-sections which has water in. here is
my table of results:

River section

Velocity (metres per second)

cross-sectional area (cubic metres)

Discharge

1

34.6

45.5

1574.3

2

56.8

58.5

3322.8

3

56.7

2

113.4

4

53.5

30

1605

As I go further down the river the pebble sizes (in general) get
smoother and smaller, whereas the discharge for each section has no
pattern. This means that discharge is in fact, not related to pebble
size.

Evaluation

I over-all think that my fieldwork went well even though there are
several factors that I think would have to be considered if I were to
do it again. For example the pebble sizes may not be completely
correct due to the fact that not all pebbles have been caught in the
river’s flow (some may have been thrown in there or have recently
fallen from the rivers banks.) another factor that caused a problem
was with the moel famau stream we visited. The width of the stream was
a lot smaller than previous rivers we visited, and therefore made it
harder to test velocity (the orange used was too large so we used a
bottle cap instead) and also as it was only 2.2 metres wide, we had to
convert it into centimetres. Problems such as these are to be expected
though and cannot be helped. Factors that could perhaps be helped are
things like the tape measure not starting at zero (mentioned earlier)
to fix this problem we could perhaps attach string or some other kind
of material to the end of the tape and fasten that to the poles