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Factors that affect the pendulum:
§ Length of string
§ Weight of ball
§ How far you pull it back - any slack in the string.
Newton discovered 3 laws of motion. They were:
· Newton’s first law of Motion was “Every object in a state of uniform
motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external
force is applied to it.”
· Newton’s second law of Motion was “The relationship between an
object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma.
Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols
being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the
force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.”
· Newton’s third law was “For every action there is an equal and
His first law we now know as the “Law of Inertia” and recognise
essentially as Galileo’s. It basically means if there where no gravity
or any force around, (like in space) if you threw a ball then it would
carry on going until something stopped it.
His second law is the most complicated out of the three. It is a
simple equation that can be used for almost anything to do with
motion. It sometimes also shown as F=mv. Where v is velocity as this
equation also works.
His third law is the shortest and easiest to get our head around. It
is simple yet very effective. Finally it is also most relevant to this
Find how the length of the string effects the time it takes for one
Retort stand; clamp; 3 pieces small wood; metal ball attached to
string; stopwatch; protractor; ruler.
§ Arranged our apparatus – as in diagram
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§ Started with the string short
§ Used protractor to find 10°
§ Started stopwatch as we let go and recorded 1 period then stopped
§ We repeated the last step 4 times
§ Then we made string longer by 8 cm and repeated last 3 steps.
We then thought it would be easier if we let the pendulum do 4 periods
and time the total tie overall then divide it by 4 so to get the
average. Also we found out that it didn’t actually matter the angle
because as long as the string is at a constant length then the periods
are all the same because if you think about it, When the angle is
shorter and the distance the pendulum is going slower and when the
pendulum is going further and bigger period it travels faster so it is
always the same time for one period.
§ So we then started again and got the 10° with the protractor
§ Then started the stopwatch
§ Counted 4 periods
§ Then stopped stopwatch.
§ Made string longer and repeated last 4 steps.
Length of string/m
Time for 4 periods/s
Average 1 period/s
In conclusion to the experiment I think that the graph shows that the
length of the string is directly proportional to the time for one
period because you can see a straight line. Also I have hand drawn
the graph below.