The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction

The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction

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The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction

Aim: We are going to investigate how change in the concentration of
acid affects the rate of reaction.

Introduction:

Chemical Reactions are caused when the particles collide with each
other to react. This is known as collision theory. Particles need
enough energy to make a successful reaction. This is called activation
energy when the minimum amount of energy is present a reaction
happens. The formula for the collision theory is ½ mv2.. Altering the
following factors can increase the rate of reaction:

Sizes of chips - Varying the size of chips will have an effect on the
results ie the smaller the chips the less of a successful reaction
takes places.

Temperature - If the temperature is increased, the particles gain more
kinetic energy, meaning they move further and faster. This means that
collisions are more likely to happen, and will happen with more force,
therefore speeding up the reaction time.

Increasing the pressure in a gas - If the amount of particles is
increased in the same volume of gas, the particles are more likely to
collide therefore increasing the rate of reaction.

Increasing the surface area - If the surface area of the reacting
particles is increased i.e. using powder instead of a block, there are
more particles available for reaction. This means that reactions are
more likely, therefore speeding up the rate of reaction.

Using a suitable catalyst - A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a
reaction but is not used up itself. When added to a reaction, some
catalysts provide a surface for particles to stick to, making them
more likely to collide with other particles. Others provide a lower
energy pathway meaning that particles do not have to collide with each
other so violently in order to react.

Prediction: I think that increasing the concentration of the acid in
this experiment will speed up the rate of reaction, as there will be
more particles in the same space, meaning they are closer together and

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more likely to collide with each other.

Method: We took 50ml of 4M hydrochloric acid and added it to 4.72g of
marble chips (calcium carbonate). We timed how long it took to produce
50 cm3 of carbon dioxide. We repeated the experiment using 50 ml of 3M
hydrochloric acid, again timing how long it took to produce 50cm3 of
carbon dioxide. We then used 25 ml of 4M hydrochloric acid and added
it to 25ml of distilled water to create 2M hydrochloric acid, and used
this to repeat the experiment. 25ml of 2M hydrochloric acid was then
added to 25ml of distilled water to create 1M hydrochloric acid. We
then added this again to 4.72g of marble chips and timed how long it
took to emit 50 cm3 of carbon dioxide. Finally, we added 25ml of 1M
hydrochloric acid to 25ml of distilled water to make 0.5M hydrochloric
acid, and repeated our method one more time. We repeated the
experiment 3 times.



Equipment List:
===============



· Stopclock
===========

· Pneumatic Trough

· Conical Flask

· Clamp and Stand

· Measuring Cylinder

· Gas Delivery Tube

· Jug

Diagram:

Results table:

Concentration of acid

Time 1 (Seconds)

Time 2 (Seconds)

Time 3 (Seconds)

Average


4M
--

4.56

3.96

5.12

4.546

3M

5.31

6.73

5.99

6.01

2M

9.41

7.29

8.86

8.52

1M

14.68

13.01

14.27

13.96

0.5M

15.91

16.88

15.23

16.006



[IMAGE]Graph
============

Analysis

The results displayed in this graph show that as the concentration of
acid was decreased, the rate of reaction slowed down. This trend was
repeated in all 3 of experiment repetitions. When the concentration
was increased, the amount of acid molecules was increased in the same
volume of liquid. This made it easier for the molecules to collide and
react with each other, therefore speeding up the reaction time. These
results prove my prediction correct as, looking at the average; we can
see that as the acid concentration was increased from 0.5 M to 4 M,
the rate of reaction increased from 16.006 seconds to 4.56 seconds.
There were no anomalous results, and the fact that we repeated our
experiment 3 times increases the validity of our data.

Evaluation: Although we managed to get accurate results that proved
the prediction correct, there were a number of ways we could have
improved our method. For example, as we were using a method that
involved diluting the acid ourselves, any mistakes we made had a
knock-on effect on the other acids i.e. if our 2M acid was incorrect,
our 1M and 0.5M would also be incorrect. It would have probably been
better if we could have used pre-diluted acid, so we could have been
certain of the concentration we were using. Another human error we
have to be aware of is the timing. We used a stopclock operated by a
human, so the times may not be exact as reaction times and stopclock
errors have to be accounted for. A better idea would have been to use
a data-logging machine, to record the time accurately. The scales we
used to measure the marble chips were inaccurate, so we were not able
to get the exact same amount of marble chips each time. Other factors
affecting the rate of reaction may not have been kept constant, for
instance, we did not measure the temperature of the room, and the
surface area of the marble chips, so this could have also affected our
results. However, despite these discrepancies, I think overall our
results were as accurate as they could have been considering school
environment and time limitations.
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