The Effect of Exercise on Heart Rate

The Effect of Exercise on Heart Rate

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The Effect of Exercise on Heart Rate

Introduction

This assignment is intended to determine what the effects of exercise
will have on your heart rate. We are going to do this experiment by
using a data logger to record the results we receive. This can then be
transferred to a computer and results can be made into graphs and
charts. A data logger works by first being connected to a computer.
Then software is used to select start times finish times and when to
take measurements. The logger is then disconnected and attached to the
person. The logger records each measurement and stores it in memory
along with the time. The logger is then reconnected to the computer
and the software is used to retrieve the data and see the measurements
as a graph, and charts. Data loggers are extremely efficient because
they are very small and usually battery powered for ease of use. The
exercise I will use will be a step-up machine, this is because it is
the most accurate way of exercise as it is at the same pace throughout
and can be kept at the same difficulty level.

As the body is exercising the cells need oxygen quicker therefore the
heart has to pump the oxygenated blood around the body quicker than
normal and this makes the heart rate increase.

Most cells in the body need oxygen to function correctly, when we
exercise the cells need more energy and oxygen so that the muscles
which help us to complete the exercise can move by muscle contraction.
The energy which we need for muscle contraction comes from food
molecules inside cells, this is a process which is known as
respiration. The main respiratory substance is glucose and the energy
released is used for the muscle contraction that we need to exercise.
When we do anything are body is releasing energy to help us to fulfil
what we are doing. Even the simplest actions need energy. When we
start to exercise we use aerobic respiration, this takes place in the

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presence of oxygen, and most of the energy released in this process is
released in the mitochondria. This respiration can be summarised as:

[IMAGE]Glucose + Oxygen Water + Carbon + Energy

[IMAGE]C6 H12 O6 +6O2 6H2O + 6CO2

The amount of energy released during aerobic respiration is roughly
38ATP.

During exercise some cells are not supplied with enough oxygen to meet
their energy needs. At this point cells respire lactic acid aswell
this can be summarised as:

[IMAGE]Glucose Lactic acid

[IMAGE]C6 H12 O6 CH3CHOHCOOH

The amount of energy released in anaerobic respiration is much smaller
in comparison to aerobic respiration, roughly only 2ATP. Anaerobic
respiration only releases a small amount of energy and produces lactic
acid. (This is the burning like feel you have in your muscles when you
do vigorous exercise and sometimes turns into cramp or stiffness.)
Anaerobic respiration only takes place when there is not enough
oxygen. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.
Oxygen is needed to remove the lactic acid this is shown as: Oxygen

[IMAGE]Lactic acid Water + Carbon Dioxide

O2

[IMAGE]CH3CHOHCOOH H2O + CO2

This is commonly know as borrowing energy without paying oxygen. Hence
oxygen must be repaid therefore the person will breathe deeply for a
while after the exercise this is known as the recovery period.

[IMAGE]

Prediction

I predict that during exercising the heart rate will increase
dramatically because the heart is working harder to pump the
oxygenated blood around the body. So the oxygen can get to the cells
so energy can be released during respiration for the muscle
contraction we need to exercise. This also refers to the information
about respiration in the introduction.

Variables and a fair test.

I will make the experiment a fair test by repeating the experiment 3
times to allow for any anomalous results. By repeating the experiment
three times I can take the average of all the results and the results
will be more precise. My controlled variable, the variable that I will
keep the same would be the type of exercise that we would complete
also the equipment that I would use, the lap top data logger etc. My
independent variable

Apparatus List

A lap top computer with the correct software for the use of a data
logger.

A data logger which can be programmed to record heart rate every 30
seconds.

A stepping machine set to level 2.

Method

1. Find an empty space where you can set up an exercise machine and a
lap top.

2. Attach a data logger to the computer and pre-set it using the
software so that it will record your heart rate every 30 seconds.

3. Remove the data logger from the computer and attach it to yourself.

4. Take your heart rate while you are resting.

5. Now start to exercise on the stepping machine. Keeping the
movements constant.

6. Throughout the exercise period the data logger will be measuring
your heart rate every 30 seconds.

7. After you have completed 5 minutes of exercise stop exercising.

8. The data logger will measure your heart rate every 30 seconds until
it returns to it's resting rate, the rate it was before you started to
exercise.

Results

1st set of results

Time

Heart rate (beats per minute)

30 seconds

1 minute

1minute 30 seconds

2 minutes

2 minutes 30 seconds

3 minutes

3minutes 30 seconds

4 minutes

4 minutes 30 seconds

5 minutes

The spare rows are to be used to put heart rates in after you have
finished exercising they should continue until your heart rate has
returned to normal.

NOTE: You may need to add more rows.

2nd results

Time

Heart rate (beats per minute)

30 seconds

1 minute

1minute 30 seconds

2 minutes

2 minutes 30 seconds

3 minutes

3minutes 30 seconds

4 minutes

4 minutes 30 seconds

5 minutes

3rd results

Time

Heart rate (beats per minute)

30 seconds

1 minute

1minute 30 seconds

2 minutes

2 minutes 30 seconds

3 minutes

3minutes 30 seconds

4 minutes

4 minutes 30 seconds

5 minutes

Hopefully by gaining a full set of results we will be able to put
together a graph or pie chart, like the examples below. Remember this
is only an example and does not show any true results. Not to be used
as evidence of true heart rates.

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]
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