Investigating How Resistance Depends On Shape

Investigating How Resistance Depends On Shape

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Investigating How Resistance Depends On Shape


There are many factors involved in this experiment, which include the
following:

*The length of resistance putty

*The width of resistance putty

*The voltage running through the putty

*The position of the variable resistor

*The shape of the putty

The factors, which I am going to investigate, are:

*The resistance of the putty, when at different lengths

I predict that the shorter I cut the putty, the lower the resistance
will be. The longer the length of putty, the higher the resistance
will be. I think that this is because there are more atoms in a larger
cylinder of putty than there are in a smaller piece of putty, this
therefore means that in the larger cylinder of putty there is more
chance that the electrons will collide with one of the atoms,
therefore there is more resistance.

Scientifically explained:

Conductors have lower resistance when they are shorter because the
electrons have a shorter distance to travel so more energy is
conserved since there are fewer collisions, and the current is higher.
Resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area because
if the cross-sectional area is increased then the electrons can move
faster and therefore current is increased. Resistance and
cross-sectional area can be considered similar to water travelling
through a tube, the wider the tube the faster water can travel through
it and the speed of the water is limited by the area of the tube with
the lowest cross-sectional area.

The factors, which I am going to keep constant, are as follows:

*The width of the cylinder of putty

*The voltage running through the circuit

*The shape of the putty

The following apparatus is to be used for this experiment:

*D.C. Power Supply

*Ammeter

*Voltmeter

*Variable Resistor

*Resistance Putty

*Wires (some may need to have crocodile clips attached to them)

*2 x 2 pence pieces

To set this experiment up you will need to follow the following method

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carefully:

*Collect all equipment (shown in list above)

*Roll the carbon putty to a 30cm cylinder, making sure the diameter is
constant all of the way along the cylinder

*Attach one of the two pence pieces to each end of the cylinder of
putty.

*Set up the circuit, carefully following the diagram above to make
sure that all of the equipment is in the correct place.

*Once the equipment is set up correctly, make a record of a reading of
the resistance, and then repeat this reading twice, this is to make
sure that none of your readings have been taken incorrectly, and that
it is the correct sized cylinder, you could also measure the weight of
the putty.

*Cut the putty to a length of 27cm and re-measure the diameter to make
sure that it is the same diameter as used for the last reading

*Repeat the last bullet point for the other five different lengths
(25cm, 20cm, 15cm, 10cm, 5cm)

The safety procedures to be considered during this experiment are:

*Don't touch the circuit with wet hands

*Make sure that there aren't any gaps in the insulating plastic,
before connecting to a power supply.

*Don't run a too high voltage through the circuit, until you are sure
that it is safe to do so.

*Do not override the power supply.

This is a list of the Equipment I used, and what I used it for:



Measurement or Observation

Apparatus used for the measurement or Observation

Voltage

Voltmeter

Amps

Ammeter

Resistance

Ohmmeter

Length of Putty

Ruler

Width of Putty

Ruler

Weight of Putty



Scales
======


1st Run

1st Run

2nd Run

2nd Run

Average

Average

Length

Temperature

Voltage

Current

Voltage

Current

Current

Resistance

(Cm)

(ºC)

(V)

(A)

(V)

(A)

(A)

(Ω)

30

17.50

4.00

0.09

4.00

0.09

0.09

44.4

27

17.50

4.00

0.10

4.00

0.10

0.1

40

24

18.50

4.00

0.12

4.00

0.11

0.115

34.8

21

18.00

4.00

0.13

4.00

0.13

0.13

30.8

18

18.50

4.00

0.15

4.00

0.15

0.15

26.7

15

18.50

4.00

0.19

4.00

0.18

0.185

21.6

11

18.50

4.00

0.26

4.00

0.27

0.265

15.1

7

19.00

4.00

0.39

4.00

0.38

0.385

10.4

4

19.00

4.00

0.68

4.00

0.67

0.675

5.9

I will now plot a graph of the average current measured for each
length.

[IMAGE]



I will now take my results and find the resistance, and the average
resistance.

V = I x R

Voltage = Current x Resistance

Rearranged to give:

R = V

I

Resistance = Voltage

Current

I will now plot a graph to show the average resistance:

[IMAGE]


My results show that my prediction was correct. I predicted that the
shorter I cut the putty, the lower the resistance will be. The longer
the length of putty, the higher the resistance will be. This is
because there are more atoms in a larger cylinder of putty than there
are in a smaller piece of putty, this therefore means that in the
larger cylinder of putty there is more chance that the electrons will
collide with one of the atoms, therefore there is more resistance.

My graph shows that the resistance steadily increases as I steadily
increase the length of the resistance putty.

[IMAGE]The graph below shows a line of best fit for the average
resistance:

In conclusion, I have found that the more of the resistance putty
there is the higher the resistance will be. This is because conductors
have lower resistance when they are shorter this is because the
electrons have a shorter distance to travel therefore more energy is
conserved since there are fewer collisions, and the current is higher.
Resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area because
if the cross-sectional area is increased then the electrons can move
faster and therefore current is increased. Resistance and
cross-sectional area can be considered similar to water travelling
through a tube, the wider the tube the faster water can travel through
it and the speed of the water is limited by the area of the tube with
the lowest cross-sectional area. Therefore this shows that my
prediction was correct (I predict that the shorter I cut the putty,
the lower the resistance will be. The longer the length of putty, the
higher the resistance will be. I think that this is because there are
more atoms in a larger cylinder of putty than there are in a smaller
piece of putty, this therefore means that in the larger cylinder of
putty there is more chance that the electrons will collide with one of
the atoms, therefore there is more resistance.)

I think that my results have given me enough evidence to show that my
prediction is correct. My results are very good and have no mistakes
within them.

I think that this was a suitable procedure to use to investigate
resistance, as it showed what I needed to know very clearly, but if I
could re-do this experiment another time, I would take more sets of
results, in order to be more accurate with my results. I think that
therefore, I can rely on my results answer my earlier question of 'how
does resistance depend on shape' thoroughly and correctly.
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