# Investigating How Resistance Depends On Shape

# Investigating How Resistance Depends On Shape

**Length:** 1002 words (2.9 double-spaced pages)

**Rating:** Excellent

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More ↓There are many factors involved in this experiment, which include the

following:

*The length of resistance putty

*The width of resistance putty

*The voltage running through the putty

*The position of the variable resistor

*The shape of the putty

The factors, which I am going to investigate, are:

*The resistance of the putty, when at different lengths

I predict that the shorter I cut the putty, the lower the resistance

will be. The longer the length of putty, the higher the resistance

will be. I think that this is because there are more atoms in a larger

cylinder of putty than there are in a smaller piece of putty, this

therefore means that in the larger cylinder of putty there is more

chance that the electrons will collide with one of the atoms,

therefore there is more resistance.

Scientifically explained:

Conductors have lower resistance when they are shorter because the

electrons have a shorter distance to travel so more energy is

conserved since there are fewer collisions, and the current is higher.

Resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area because

if the cross-sectional area is increased then the electrons can move

faster and therefore current is increased. Resistance and

cross-sectional area can be considered similar to water travelling

through a tube, the wider the tube the faster water can travel through

it and the speed of the water is limited by the area of the tube with

the lowest cross-sectional area.

The factors, which I am going to keep constant, are as follows:

*The width of the cylinder of putty

*The voltage running through the circuit

*The shape of the putty

The following apparatus is to be used for this experiment:

*D.C. Power Supply

*Ammeter

*Voltmeter

*Variable Resistor

*Resistance Putty

*Wires (some may need to have crocodile clips attached to them)

*2 x 2 pence pieces

To set this experiment up you will need to follow the following method

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__123HelpMe.com__. 17 Jun 2019

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*Collect all equipment (shown in list above)

*Roll the carbon putty to a 30cm cylinder, making sure the diameter is

constant all of the way along the cylinder

*Attach one of the two pence pieces to each end of the cylinder of

putty.

*Set up the circuit, carefully following the diagram above to make

sure that all of the equipment is in the correct place.

*Once the equipment is set up correctly, make a record of a reading of

the resistance, and then repeat this reading twice, this is to make

sure that none of your readings have been taken incorrectly, and that

it is the correct sized cylinder, you could also measure the weight of

the putty.

*Cut the putty to a length of 27cm and re-measure the diameter to make

sure that it is the same diameter as used for the last reading

*Repeat the last bullet point for the other five different lengths

(25cm, 20cm, 15cm, 10cm, 5cm)

The safety procedures to be considered during this experiment are:

*Don't touch the circuit with wet hands

*Make sure that there aren't any gaps in the insulating plastic,

before connecting to a power supply.

*Don't run a too high voltage through the circuit, until you are sure

that it is safe to do so.

*Do not override the power supply.

This is a list of the Equipment I used, and what I used it for:

Measurement or Observation

Apparatus used for the measurement or Observation

Voltage

Voltmeter

Amps

Ammeter

Resistance

Ohmmeter

Length of Putty

Ruler

Width of Putty

Ruler

Weight of Putty

Scales

======

1st Run

1st Run

2nd Run

2nd Run

Average

Average

Length

Temperature

Voltage

Current

Voltage

Current

Current

Resistance

(Cm)

(ÂºC)

(V)

(A)

(V)

(A)

(A)

(â„¦)

30

17.50

4.00

0.09

4.00

0.09

0.09

44.4

27

17.50

4.00

0.10

4.00

0.10

0.1

40

24

18.50

4.00

0.12

4.00

0.11

0.115

34.8

21

18.00

4.00

0.13

4.00

0.13

0.13

30.8

18

18.50

4.00

0.15

4.00

0.15

0.15

26.7

15

18.50

4.00

0.19

4.00

0.18

0.185

21.6

11

18.50

4.00

0.26

4.00

0.27

0.265

15.1

7

19.00

4.00

0.39

4.00

0.38

0.385

10.4

4

19.00

4.00

0.68

4.00

0.67

0.675

5.9

I will now plot a graph of the average current measured for each

length.

[IMAGE]

I will now take my results and find the resistance, and the average

resistance.

V = I x R

Voltage = Current x Resistance

Rearranged to give:

R = V

I

Resistance = Voltage

Current

I will now plot a graph to show the average resistance:

[IMAGE]

My results show that my prediction was correct. I predicted that the

shorter I cut the putty, the lower the resistance will be. The longer

the length of putty, the higher the resistance will be. This is

because there are more atoms in a larger cylinder of putty than there

are in a smaller piece of putty, this therefore means that in the

larger cylinder of putty there is more chance that the electrons will

collide with one of the atoms, therefore there is more resistance.

My graph shows that the resistance steadily increases as I steadily

increase the length of the resistance putty.

[IMAGE]The graph below shows a line of best fit for the average

resistance:

In conclusion, I have found that the more of the resistance putty

there is the higher the resistance will be. This is because conductors

have lower resistance when they are shorter this is because the

electrons have a shorter distance to travel therefore more energy is

conserved since there are fewer collisions, and the current is higher.

Resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area because

if the cross-sectional area is increased then the electrons can move

faster and therefore current is increased. Resistance and

cross-sectional area can be considered similar to water travelling

through a tube, the wider the tube the faster water can travel through

it and the speed of the water is limited by the area of the tube with

the lowest cross-sectional area. Therefore this shows that my

prediction was correct (I predict that the shorter I cut the putty,

the lower the resistance will be. The longer the length of putty, the

higher the resistance will be. I think that this is because there are

more atoms in a larger cylinder of putty than there are in a smaller

piece of putty, this therefore means that in the larger cylinder of

putty there is more chance that the electrons will collide with one of

the atoms, therefore there is more resistance.)

I think that my results have given me enough evidence to show that my

prediction is correct. My results are very good and have no mistakes

within them.

I think that this was a suitable procedure to use to investigate

resistance, as it showed what I needed to know very clearly, but if I

could re-do this experiment another time, I would take more sets of

results, in order to be more accurate with my results. I think that

therefore, I can rely on my results answer my earlier question of 'how

does resistance depend on shape' thoroughly and correctly.