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The aim of this field experiment is to find out how various activities
around the river can affect the water quality such as the clearness of
the water. In order to carry out this field experiment, we used data
loggers the black and white disc, beaker, filter paper, ping-pong
ball, raffia string and bamboo sticks.
For the experiment to test for the temperature of the river water, we
used the data logger which was provided for us. Firstly, we connect
TMP (T/C – K °C) to the MultiLog’s input channel I/O-1.Then we
switched the data logger on and make sure the MultiLog displays
“Ready”. Then we click PORT until “INPUT-1” is displayed. After which,
we click SENSOR until “Temperature” is displayed and RANGE until
“TC-K°C” is displayed. Click RATE until “Every Sec” is displayed.
Click SAMPLES until “Samples = 2000”is displayed. Click TRIGGER until
“Not Active” is displayed. After that, we place probe in the water and
click the run/stop button ad wait for the reading to stabilize.
Finally, we take the reading in degree Celsius and click the run/stop
button to stop.
As for the experiment to test for the pH level of the water, we
continued to use the data logger. Firstly, we connected the connecting
cable from MultiLog’s input I/O-1 to the pH (0÷14 pH) adaptor. Then
we connected the pH probe to the pH (0÷14 pH) adaptor, and pressed ON.
When the MultiLog displayed ‘Ready’, we clicked PORT until “INPUT-1”
was displayed. Then we clicked SENSOR until ‘pH’ was displayed.
After which, we clicked RANGE until (0÷14 pH) was displayed, and
clicked RATE until “Every Sec” was displayed. After that, we clicked
SAMPLES until “Samples = 2000” was displayed, and clicked TRIGGER
until “Not Active” was displayed. We then removed the “Electrode
Storage Water” bottle from the end of the pH probe and placed the
probe into our river water sample. Then we clicked the run/stop
button and obtained our readings.
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"Investigating How Various Activities Around the River Can Affect the Water Quality." 123HelpMe.com. 19 Sep 2019
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For the last usage of the data logger, it was used to measure the
amount of dissolved oxygen content in water. Firstly, we connected the
connecting cable from MultiLog’s input I/O-1 to the D02 adaptor. Then
connect D02 probe to the Oxygen Adaptor (0 to 25% 02 0 to 125% Sat).
We referred to the instruction sheet that comes together with the
oxygen adaptor to assemble the probe and filled it with electrolyte.
Then we switched it on and make sure the MultLog displays “Ready”. We
click PORT until “INPUT -1” is displayed. Click SENSOR until “Oxygen
D02” is displayed. Click RANGE until “0 ÷ 125%” is displayed. Click
RATE until “Every SEC” is displayed. Click SAMPLES until “Samples =
2000” is displayed. Click TRIGGER until “Not Active” is displayed.
Click the run/stop and wait for the reading to stabilize. Finally, we
took the reading (in %) and click the run/stop button to stop.
To test for the turbidity of the water, we took a beaker to collect
the water from the river and then we used a disc which was painted
white and black and put it beneath the beaker to see if it was clear.
If the black and white disc could be seen from the top view, the water
is clear. Thus, since we could clearly see the disc from above, and
when we placed the beaker of water under the strong sunlight, very
little particles were seen floating in the water. Thus, we can
conclude that the turbidity of the water is clear. We also put the
water under strong sunlight to check if there were any small
particles, which can be seen, suspended in the water.
Finally, for the last test for the velocity of the water, we used a
ping-pong ball and stick it to a one-metre raffia string. We placed it
on the surface of the water gently and allowed the flow of the water
to carry it. When the raffia string becomes taut, we stopped the
stopwatch and record the timing taken for the ping-pong ball to travel
one metre. Though, this experiment failed for the Pasar Ris group, as
the water does not seems to flow at all and the ping-pong ball did not
move. We tried the second time and a breeze blew causing the ping-pong
ball to move together in the direction of the breeze. We tried the
third and last time and a speedboat sped past, causing the ping-pong
ball to travel yet together with it.
Quality of water
Center of river(surface)
Center of river (bottom)
Fine particles suspended
Small black particles
Clear with little particles
Littering by visitors, vehicles and train nearby
Water skiing, breeze, speed boat and construction site
Figure 1. Table of water qualities in Kallang River
For the riverbank, fine particles could be seen suspending in the
water due to the dust from the train and vehicles. Vehicles by the
road side especially lorries produce exhaust fumes. There are small
particles and dust contained in the fumes and when they were blown by
wind, the particles tend to enter the river water. Thus, fine
particles were suspended in the water by the riverbank. Due to the
construction site and the speedboats in the centre of the river, these
causes tiny black particles to enter the river water. For the bottom
of the centre of the river, most of the particles in the water tend to
float up to the surface and thus, the water at the bottom of the
centre of the river is clean and have little visible particles. If the
particles did not float up, most probably it will sink under the sand
and the sand would weigh it down.
Because of the exhaust fumes from the vehicles and litters left by the
visitors at the riverbank, it causes the water by the riverbank to
turn a little acidic. Due to the wastewater discharged by the
speedboat and the construction site, it provides alkalinity to the
river water at the surface of the water at the center. The river water
at the bottom of the center of the river is slightly alkaline, as the
waste from the construction site might have sunk down and mixed with
the river water, causing the alkalinity. It is not as alkaline as the
surface as the waste particles tend to float and seldom sink.
The amount of dissolved oxygen in the water at the riverbank is much
more than the rest of the places is due to the fact that the water is
shallow and more oxygen can dissolve into it easily. The surface has
much more amount of dissolved oxygen than the bottom of the center of
the river is because the oxygen dissolved first into the surface and
then the oxygen molecules will slowly mix with the bottom.
The clarity of the water at the riverbank is much better than the one
in the center is due to the speed of the water traveling. The faster
it travels, the clearer the water. The dirty particles in the water
tend to obstruct the smooth flowing of the water and when the
particles clog together, the water will be unclear.
Quality of water
Center of length of river
Fine particles suspended with dead fishes
Speed boat, litters
Figure 2. Table of water qualities in Pasir Ris River
The water at the river mouth has fine particles suspended in the
water. There are even dead fishes seen floating in the river water.
The fine particles might be due to the littering by visitors or the
oil spill by the speedboat. However, only small particles were seen in
the water at the upper stream of the river. The small particles might
be due to the minor construction site situated at the source of the
The acidity of the river water at the mouth might be due to the
littering and the oil spill from the speedboat too. Thus, the acidity
of the river is quite high. As for the alkalinity in the water at the
upper stream, the water is very alkaline as it might be due to the
construction site at an even upper stream. The wastewater discharged
at the construction site flowed down and mixed with the water and
thus, the alkalinity.
There were more dissolved oxygen at the river mouth because it is more
open aired compared to the upper stream and lesser organisms which
uses the dissolved oxygen. The lesser amount of dissolved oxygen was
because of the fact that there were more organisms living at the upper
stream and the organisms used a lot of the dissolved oxygen to
There was not much movement of the water in fact. The river water
moved due to the breeze blowing and the speedboat traveling. When we
left the ping-pong ball at the surface of the water, it did not move
and only moved slightly at a speed of 5m/h when the breeze blew. Thus,
we were unable to carry out the experiment for the velocity of the
Overall, I think that the this experiment is quite well-done except
for the fact that the velocity of the river water at Pasar Ris could
not be carried out because of the stagnancy of the water and the
continuous blowing of breeze and speedboats whizzing past. As for the
Kallang River, the velocity of the water might be also due to the wind
or other factors. Thus, I think that the experiment for the velocity
of the river has failed. And the pH value of the rivers might be due
to other factors such as acidity of the rain, which causes it to be
acidic or alkaline. The turbidity of the river can be further improved
by taking the river water samples and then test it for even
microorganisms. We should have used a microscope and observed the
microorganisms and then evaporate the river water to see if there are
more micro organisms in the water so we can be sure if the water is