The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic

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The Roman Republic
Rome was not always the great empire that people believe it was. In the beginning it was a kingdom, then it turned into a republic. Republic itself is translated means " the public thing". Rome was built on the seven hills of Palatine, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, and Capitolline on the left side of the river. In the Republic the patrician class controlled the government but over time the plebians (common people) began to take control.
The executive branch Roman government was led by the rules of the Cursus Honorum. These were the rules that controlled when a person would move to a higher office. You were required to wait ten years before serving a second consecutive term. To advance to a higher office you had to serve five years in your present office. To become consul one would have to hold the offices of Quaestor, Aedile, and Praetor. The above offices were held by at least two men. Members of higher offices could veto the actions of lower members of the magistrates.
The consuls were the most powerful members of the Roman Republican government. The consuls had imperium power, this meant that they had power over life and death. The consuls had control of the army and the armies his allies. One consul member could veto the action of his partner if he felt necessary. The consuls controlled senate could also call them to session at anytime, which they did infrequently.
The Praetor were the magistrates who were presided over the judicial subjects. They controlled law and foreign people in Roman provinces. When a Praetor's term was up he could be given command of the military or become the Praetor of a Roman territory.
An Aedile is the equivalent to a modern day mayor. They controlled the city utilities. They also were responsible for the moral of the population that they controlled. If the moral was low they were required to have a festival of some sort to keep the people happy, because happy people make money.

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The Quaestor was elected to his position after serving as a military tribunate. There job was to control finances and keep public records.
Tribunes were the lowest branches of government and these men dealt with the people more than anyone else. They were supposed to protect the lives and property of the people.
The censor was elected every five years to tally the total number of people in his province and to sign up new citizens. These men where more powerful then Aediles, but the influence they had on the rest of the government was great because they were usually ex-senators.
The legislative branch of government had three citizen assemblies. The Curiate was based on the ancient Roman tribes. They were men at least fifty years old and were elected for life. It had little power but allowed aging men to continue to serve in government. The centuriate assembly was the most important assembly. They were the highest court in the land and were in charge most of cases involving capitol punishment. There were 118 members of this assembly and they were all of the top three of nine social classes. The main role of the centuriate was to declare war, and to pass laws. The tribal assembly was made up of wealthy villa owners from the area around Rome. The tribal assembly's main role was to pass law, because it was easier for the thirty-five members of the tribal assembly to meet then the one hundred eight-teen centuriates.
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