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To find out how the concentration of sucrose solution affects the rate
of osmosis in a potato and what happens to the length and mass of the
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of the water molecules across a partially
permeable from a region of high water concentration to a region of low
Osmosis is a special case of diffusion
The biochemical process in living cells always takes place in a
solution. A solution is made up of a solvent (the dissolving fluid)
and solute (the particles dissolved in the solvent). In living
organisms, the solvent is water and the solution is called aqueous
Living cells are separated from their surroundings by the partially
permeable cell surface membrane. The contents of the cell, the
cytoplasm, are one aqueous solution and the surroundings of the cell,
for example pond water, is another aqueous solution. If the two
solutions do not have the same concentration of various substances,
molecules may move away from one to the other by diffusion, if the
membrane is permeable these substances. To summarise osmosis:
The diffusion of water molecules, down a water potential gradiant
across a partially permeable membrane.
Cells and osmosis
A cell is surrounded by a partially permeable membrane, and water may
cross the membrane easily. If cell is placed in a solution of lower
water potential, water leaves the cell by osmosis. If the cell is
placed in a solution of higher water potential, water enters by
Plant cells and osmosis
When water enters a plant cell by osmosis the cytoplasm will swell,
but only until it pushes against the cellulose cell wall, as shown
below. The strong wall stops the cells from bursting. We say that the
cell is turgid. A plant cell will not be permanently damaged by the
entry of water. If water leaves a plant cell by osmosis the cytoplasm
will shrink, but the cellulose cell wall will continue to give some
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- Investigating Osmosis in Potato Tissue Aim To estimate the concentration of sucrose in potato tissue. Hypothesis ========== I believe that the potato tissue that has been in the hypotonic (0.1M sucrose) solution will be more turgid than before, while the tissue in the isotonic (0.3M sucrose) will be similar to its previous state. The tissue that has been in the hypertonic (0.5M sucrose) should be far more placid than it was before. This is because of osmosis - water diffusing in and out of the potato tissue cells.... [tags: Papers]
815 words (2.3 pages)
- Investigating Osmosis in Potato Tissue Aim-We are going to investigate how 'osmosis' is effected by higher and lower concentrations of water using potato cylinders as selectively permeable membranes. A selectively permeable membrane is something only water molecules can pass through. We will cut eighteen potato cylinders to the same width and length using a scalpel and a corer on a white tile. We shall use the same potato for each cylinder. The cylinders should then be around the same mass.... [tags: Papers]
2597 words (7.4 pages)
- Investigating the Effects of Sucrose Concentration on Osmosis in Potato Tissue PLANNING ======== We have been asked to research the effects of sucrose concentration on osmosis in potato tissue. Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of a solvent (-in this case water) from a place where its chemical potential is higher to another place where it is lower, through a semi-permeable membrane (-such as a cell membrane). A cell membrane lets smaller molecules such as water through but does not allow bigger molecules to pass through.... [tags: Papers]
1529 words (4.4 pages)
- Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue Aim To investigate factors which affect the rate of osmosis. The main factors which affect osmosis are: Pressure Temperature Surface area Solute Concentration Plant Tissue We will be investigating solute concentration as this is the easiest factor to measure and will give us the most accurate results. We will mainly investigate the different rate of osmosis when potato cells are placed in solution with different solute concentrations.... [tags: Papers]
1076 words (3.1 pages)
- Osmosis into Potato Tissue Aim: To investigate how varying the sucrose concentration around piece of potato tissue affects the diffusion of water (osmosis) into or out of the cell. Introduction: Definition of Osmosis: This is the diffusion of water molecules from an area of high water concentration (dilute solution) to an area of low water concentration (concentrated solution) through a permeable membrane. The rate, again, depends on the surface area, the concentration gradient and the properties of the partially permeable membrane.... [tags: Papers]
1798 words (5.1 pages)
- Investigating the Factors that Affect Osmosis in Living Tissue Aim: To investigate the factors that effect osmosis in living tissue. Planning: Introduction Essentially, osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeably membrane. Osmosis is one of the ways by which substances enter and exit cells. Other ways include diffusion, the Donnan effect, solvent drag, filtration, endocytosis, exocytosis and active transport. All of these methods are necessary to provide cells with the conditions necessary for their survival.... [tags: Papers]
5450 words (15.6 pages)
- The Factors Affecting Osmosis in Potato Tissue Planning In this coursework I am investigating the factors affecting osmosis in potato tissue. [IMAGE] Osmosis is defined as the net movement of water molecules from a region in which they are highly concentrated to a region in which they are less concentrated. This movement must take place across a partially permeable membrane such as a cell membrane, which lets smaller molecules such as water through but does not allow bigger molecules to pass through.... [tags: Papers]
1490 words (4.3 pages)
- Investigating Osmosis in Potatoes Preliminary Experiment Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine the solute concentration of potato tissue; i.e. To investigate at which point the sucrose concentration is the same as the solute concentration inside the potato (an equilibrium is reached) Introduction Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration; (a weak solution), to an area of low concentration; (a strong solution), through a partially permeable membrane.... [tags: Papers]
2033 words (5.8 pages)
- The Effect of Concentration on Osmosis in Potatoe Chips Studying the change in osmosis in potato chips placed in sugar solutions. Observation: I have noticed that potato chips decrease in mass when they are in a high concentration of sugar solution and increase in mass when they are in a low concentration of sugar solution. Hypothesis Â· A potato chip left in a low concentration of sugar solution will gain mass where as a potato chip left in a high concentration of sugar solution will lose mass.... [tags: Papers]
1472 words (4.2 pages)
- Osmosis Investigation How different concentrations of sucrose solution effect potato tissue. Aim How do different concentrations of sucrose solution effect potato tissue. Background Information Osmosis is the movement of water molecules though a partially permeable membrane from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential. High Concentration Low Concentration The membrane lets small water molecules pass though but not large ones. The flow continues until the concentration becomes the same on the inside as on the outside.... [tags: GCSE Biology Osmosis Coursework]
1097 words (3.1 pages)
Picture of Animal Cell
Animal cells and osmosis
Animal cells have no cell wall, just a membrane. The are likely to
suffer damage as a result of osmosis.
Osmosis is potentially damaging to animal cells, and animals have
mechanisms to keep the blood plasma and the body fluids at the same
water potential as the cytoplasm of cells. In mammals the kidney plays
a vital part in the process of osmoregulation.
Picture of an animal cell
Active transport requires energy to move materials
Molecules and ions can move from one place to another by diffusion,
but only until equilibrium has been reached. If no concentration
gradient exists between the two places, no diffusion can occur- this
means that if equilibrium has been reached, useful particles cannot be
absorbed by diffusion. Active transport is a method by which particles
can cross membrane even against a concentration gradient. In active
transport, protein molecules in the cell surface membrane pick up and
carry particles across the membrane. Theses protein molecules are
called carriers, and when they work they use energy supplied by the
cell. To summarise active transport:
Can move molecules against a concentration gradient but requires
energy and involves protein carriers in membranes.
Plasmolysis and Haemolysis
When cells are placed in a strong solution plasmolysis happens.
Plasmolysis: when cells are placed in a strong solution and water
passes out of cells by osmosis- the vacuole starts to shrink. These
cells are no longer form, they are limp we say they are flaccid. As
more water leaves the cells cytoplasm peels away from the cell wall.
These cells are now plasmolsed.
When animals cells are placed in a strong solution - what happens? The
water passes into the cells by osmosis. When red blood cells are
placed in the distilled water, animal cells do not have a cell wall to
stop when swelling too much. So they burst. We can theses haemolysis.
I predict in pure distilled water the potato tubes swell because water
enters the cells by osmosis. Also I predict the potatoes in the rich
sugar solution will shrink because water leaves their cells due to
The table of my results for my preliminary experiment are as follows:
Starting length of potato
Mass at start
Final length of potato
2.1of all potatoes
2.1 of all potatoes
1.9 of all the potatoes
2.1of all potatoes
Final mass of potato
0.8 of all the potatoes
0.8 of all the potatoes
0.6 of all the potatoes
0.5 of all the potatoes
I did a preliminary so that I would know how to do the experiment. I
needed to do the preliminary experiment so that it would help me
because the way we are going to do the real experiment is exactly the
same method as the experiment that I was going to do. So this helped
me know what equipment to use and what results to expect. This also
helps me to see if am doing the experiment correctly or not. From my
preliminary I have decided the length of the potato to be 2 cm.
A graph for my preliminary results
Test tubes - to put the solutions in.
Test tube rack- to put the test tube in.
Different molarities of sugar solution (sucrose)
Ruler- to measure the length of the potato accurately.
Knife- to cut the potato at the right length.
Potato- to see the effect on osmosis and length and mass.
Clock - to measure how long it takes.
Borer- to cut the potato to the same thickness.
Cutting tile- a tile where you cut your potato.
Distilled water - to compare with sucrose solution results.
Measuring scale - measure the weight of the potato before and after
Tongs- to take the potatoes out of the sucrose solution.
Sticky labels- to label the beakers with the different concentration.
Tissues- to dry the potato.
Beakers- - do the experiment in.
Fair testing should play a big part in this experiment. If this
experiment isn't a fair test, we will be obtaining the wrong results,
which could lead us to the wrong conclusions.
1. I kept the length of the potato the same.
2. The beginning mass stays the same.
3. I kept the amount of sucrose solution the same.
4. The time each one was kept for was the same.
5. The same sized beakers were used.
6. I will use the same potato.
7. To keep the temperature the same (keep in the same area of the
To create a fair test certain aspects of the experiment will have to
be kept the same whilst one key variable is changed. I have chosen to
vary the concentration of the sugar solution. This will give me a very
varied set of results from which I hope to make a decent conclusion.
If any of the non-variables below are not kept constant it would mean
it would not be a fair test.
Safety is an important aspect in every experiment, even if the
experiment seems to be very harmless. This is why I'll be taking this
We had to tie our scarf's back to avoid them coming in our way. If
your shoe has shoe laces then tie them before you begin. Take hats and
other loose items which may get it the way off to prevent accidents
.All bags and coats should be out of the way to prevent people
tripping over. I will be using a very sharp knife, which could injure
someone if it's not handled properly. I will also be very careful that
the solutions don't get into our bodies internally, just in case,
because we are not fully aware of the damage it could do to us. I will
be wearing a lab coat to prevent this from happening. To be extra
precautious wears goggles to prevent the sucrose solution spilling
into the eyes.
But apart from all theses there is not any major caution you need to
1. Get a potato
2. Cut the potatoes with a borer so that the thickness (width) is
even. This should be done placed on a cutting tile.
4. Next take a sharp knife and a ruler and use this to make the length
of the potato preciously 2cm. Cut 20 pieces in this precise order.
3. Get for potatoes pieces that you cut and place them on a measuring
scale individually and measure the mass and length and record your
4. Get a beaker of distilled water. Add the for potatoes at the same
time leave for 20 minutes and see what happens. Keep going up every 20
minutes until you reach 80 minutes. Record your results.
5. Remove the potatoes immediately with tongs drying them with tissue.
Put each potato individually on the electronic weighing scale and
measure the mass and length of the potato. Record your results.
Repeat the experiment exactly as shown in the above procedure but this
time instead of distilled water use 0.17 M, 0.25M, 0.5 M and 1M.
I assume I have done my experiment correctly as my bar charts turned
out looking reasonable to my result. Nothing went wrong. There was
evidence osmosis took place because in rich sucrose solution all the
potatoes shrunk due the fact water leaves the cells due to osmosis. In
pure distilled water the potatoes swelled up. To find out the average
mass of the potato chip you have to all the masses of the potato
together and divide by how many potatoes samples they are. Then use
the formula for change in mass which is change/original x 100 to find
out the percentage in mass.