The Rate of Reaction When Dissolving Sugar

The Rate of Reaction When Dissolving Sugar

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The Rate of Reaction When Dissolving Sugar


Introduction

I have been asked to perform an investigation on the length of time it
takes for a certain amount of sugar to dissolve in a certain amount of
water at different temperatures. I will investigate whether the time
taken at one temperature and another will be the same, quicker or
slower using scientific methods.



Identifying Key Factors
=======================

The factors that would affect the dissolving rate are: -

· Volume of water

The larger the volume of water, the quicker the sugar will dissolve
because there is more particles for the sugar molecules to collide
with.

· Mass of sugar

The more sugar there is the dissolving rate will be slower as there is
more molecules to collide with the water particles.

· Size of sugar particles

The bigger they are the slower they will dissolve.

· Temperature

The higher the temperature the quicker the sugar will dissolve

The variable I am going to change is temperature. I will keep all
other factors constant to make the experiment fair and so the results
are reliable.

Reasons for doing a pre-test

I am going to perform a pre-test so that I have an idea of the
quantities of Sugar and water I will need to use in my actual
experiment. Doing a pre-test means I will get a more accurate result
when it comes to do the actual experiment.

Pre-test method

Apparatus

· Glass Beaker

· Measuring cylinder

· Tripod

· Bunsen Burner

· Stirring Rod

· Thermometer

· Stopwatch

· Heat proof mat

· For safety: Goggles

· Weighing scales

· Gather equipment and set up as shown below:

· Choose your temperatures (I am going to perform the pre-test with
the temperatures 20°C, 40°C and 60°C)

· Measure 10g of sugar and 100cm³ of 20°C water

· Pour the water and sugar into the glass beaker and start the clock.

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· Stir constantly until the sugar is dissolved and then stop the clock

· Record this time in a results table

· Repeat this experiment again for a more accurate result

· Then repeat the experiment twice with the other temperatures
(Remembering when using the Bunsen burner to wear goggles)

· Create averages for the results

Pre-test results

Time Taken for Sugar to Dissolve

Temp (°C)

1st attempt

2nd attempt

Average

20

50

53

52

40

37

35

36

60

23

25

24

Pre-test Conclusion

My pre-test worked very well and the amounts I used of sugar and water
I chose worked so well I have decided to use them in my actual
experiment.

Prediction

I predict that in my experiment when the temperature is raised the
sugar will dissolve quicker. I believe this will happen because when
the temperature is increased the water gains heat energy and the
particles gain this energy, which they convert into kinetic energy,
causing them to move much faster. This means that there is a higher
chance of collision because the sugar and the water particles move
towards each other much faster, allowing a head on collision. This
collision is when the water breaks down the sugar and dissolves it.

Method

The apparatus and method are no different to the pre-test only this
time I will test for 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and I
will repeat the readings as before.

Results

Time Taken to dissolve (sec)

Temperature (°C)

1st attempt

2nd attempt

Average

20

50

49

50

30

45

47

46

40

35

36

36

50

31

31

31

60

24

25

25

70

22

20

21

80

20

20

20

Conclusion

As I expected, when the temperature was raised the quicker the sugar
dissolved. For example at 30°C the sugar was fully dissolved at 46
seconds, but as the temperature rose to 50°C the time taken for the
sugar to fully dissolve was much shorter at 31 seconds and again as
the temperature rose to 80°C the time taken to dissolve was shortened
once again to 20 seconds. This is because when I increased the
temperature the water and sugar molecules gained more energy, which
they then converted into kinetic energy. The particles moved much
faster and there was a higher chance of a head on collision so
therefore the time taken for the sugar to dissolve decreased when I
increased the temperature.

Evaluation

My experiment went as planned. The temperatures and quantities that I
chose to use worked very well in the experiment. Although I took care
in keeping all factors the same for a fair test and I repeated the
experiment and worked on the averages of my findings. I still found
two anomalous results when I plotted my graph. I think this Is because
of my rate of stirring could not be kept constant. To improve the
experiment I could stir only 10 times instead of stirring constantly
throughout the dissolving process. I also think to improve my
investigation further I could repeat the readings a third time and
therefore I would have a more accurate average. A way to extend my
experiment is to test how long the sugar would dissolve if it had a
larger mass. I think this experiment was carried out with great care
and the instructions were followed to the best of my ability.
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