Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace

Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace

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Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace

There are many different potential risks in to a business when it
comes to health and safety. Businesses have to make sure that they
protect the employees and the general public from the health and
safety risks. The many risks that a business can be effected with are:

* Fire risks

* Accident risk

* Stress

* Injuries

These effect a business, because they have to make sure that every
risks is thoroughly checked and that it is satisfactory of the law.
These risks can be all identified in different places in a business.
As these risks are dangerous to the employee, the employer or the
general public these risks can take place anytime and in anyplace.
Like the following if the risks are implemented then there can be
different affects of the risk:

· Fire: The cause of fire can be dangerous. This type of risk can
happen anywhere and cause many injuries and lots of damages. The
employer and the employees have to make sure that they are able to
identify fires, and that they know what to do if a fire happens.

· Accidents: Accidents can happen anywhere. The main places that
accidents could happen are when there chemicals being used, when
machinery is being used.

· Injuries due to accidents: There are many injuries caused through
accidents they are as follows:

· Dust

· Noise

· Toxic fumes

· Asbestos inhalation

· Radiation

I have 2 pieces of statistic which show how injuries are caused by
different risks. The first data is table 17e it shows fatal injuries
which are to employees, self-employed and workers. This table shows me
what different kind of accidents happens to people. This table was
distributed out in 2001/2002. The table is based on a person getting
injuries through different kinds of accidents. The accidents that
happened to people us done by days. This table shows how many people a

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day get injured through different accidents. The table is also put
into sectors which people work in.

The second table labelled 9.9 shows also injuries to workers by
industry and severity of injuries. This table has more information in
it but it also is based on accidents at work. This table has three
sections telling what kind of injuries that people have had. Its put
into three columns fatal injuries, major injuries and when people have
taken day off work due to minor injuries the columns also split into
three different years which are 1998/1999,1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The
tables are viewable on the following pages.

The statistics on the bottom show how many people are injured and how
many people are reported under RIDDOR. The graphs shows Number and
rate of fatal injury to workers, Rate of fatal injury to employees and
the self employed and Number of fatal injuries to members of the
public. The first is about the rate of fatal injuries to workers.


* In 2001/02 the number of fatal injuries to workers Decreased by
15% to 249 compared with 292 in 2000/01.

* The number of fatal injuries to employees and the self-employed
Decreased in 2001/02 by 4% and 43% respectively.

* The rate of fatal injury to workers dropped to 0.9 in 2001/02 from
1.0 in 2000/01. Despite this decrease, the rate of fatal injury
rose by over 30% in 2000/01, after the general downward trend
until 1999/2000.

* The rate of fatal injury in 2001/02 is still higher than that
expected had that downward trend continued.

* In the last ten years the number and rate of fatal injury to
workers has generally dropped, but increased in 1996/97 and
2000/01. The rate for 2001/02 is one of

The lowest on record, though it was lower in 1999/2000.


* In 2001/02, the rate of fatal injury to employees decreased to 0.8
from 0.9 in 2000/01.

* The rate of fatal injury to the self-employed decreased in 2001/02
by 44% to 1.3 from 2.4 the year before, though the rate fluctuates
year on year.

* The rate of fatal injury is higher to the self-employed than to
employees. This reflects that proportionally more self-employed
people than employees work in higher risk industries of
agriculture and construction, and those rates of fatal injury are
consistently higher for the self-employed than employees in
agriculture and services.


* In 2001/02, there was a decrease of 14% in the number of fatal
injuries to members of the public to 384 from 444 in 2000/01, when
the highest numbers of fatal injuries were reported in the last
ten years.

* About 72% of fatal injuries are due to acts of suicide or trespass
on railway systems. The number of such fatalities tended to rise
in the five years to 2000/01 but dropped from 300 to 275 in
2001/02. Prior to 1996/97 injuries resulting from acts of suicide
and trespass were reportable under separate legislation.

* There were also 20 fatal injuries to members of the public which
were railway related and a further 89 which occurred in other
industries. Of which 73 were in other service industries.

* The number of fatal injuries to members of the public have been
dropping in agriculture and fluctuated in construction over the
past ten years.

Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety

In the Workplace


Businesses have to try and prevent any health hazards at the work
place. They have to make sure that the business is able to trade
without there being any accidents or injuries to there employees or
the general public.

The way in which a business can prevent these hazards and risks is by
having health and safety policies. Health and safety policies would
have to be followed by everyone in the organisation. The policy for
health and safety will provide a health and a safe environment for the
employees and the general public. The heath and safety policy is there
so that everyone in the business knows what to do. They are going to
have to take care towards health and safety. The policy will consist
of rules and regulations towards health and safety for an employee all
employees must follow them. If they are not followed by an employee
they may get into trouble with the organisation and also the law.

One way that a business can eliminate hazards is by giving adequate
health and safety training to its employees. There are many steps in
which an organisation go through before they give any training.
Businesses have to look at who needs what training but as for health
and safety is training that is given to everyone in the organisation.
Employees may be required to attend on the job training sessions on
such topics as hazard communication, hazardous waste and asbestos
awareness. Managers of affected employees should exercise a measure of
accommodation for those needing training. Checklists would help them
understand the training requirements which can be found by the
organisation health and safety books. In some cases, managers may
conduct specialized training sessions (e.g., safety procedures for
using powered equipment). Other training may have to be provided by
outside vendors (e.g., forklift or bucket truck operation).

At a minimum, health and safety training for employees must include

* recognition of health and safety hazards;

* general and job-specific health and safety practices; and

* State and federal regulations and UK's health and safety policies
applicable to the job.

Training should occur when an employee is hired, when an employee is
given a new work assignment for which training has not previously been
given, and when a new hazard (chemical or physical) is introduced into
the workplace. By law businesses have to follow the management of
health and safety at work regulation 1992 it says that they have to
provide health and safety training to employees who start their job,
when their work or responsibilities change or there are greater risks
as a result. Here are the ways in which a manager would give training.
It explains who, what and when training should be given:

· WHEN THEY START WORKING FOR YOU. All new starters need some form of
induction training. They will all need to know the businesses safety
policy and the arrangements you have made to deal with health and
safety matters.

changes in the workplace, they should consider whether the risks have
changed, and whether anyone needs extra training as a result. If the
change makes the job safer, or doesn't change the risk, they don't
have to provide extra health and safety training - though the manager
might wish to provide training for other reasons.

Making sure that the manager provides REFRESHER TRAINING when people
need to bring their skills up to date, especially when the training
relates to something they don't often do, such as dealing with
emergencies. Make sure that training materials are kept up to date.

· PROVIDE TRAINING WITHIN WORKING HOURS. Make special arrangements, if
necessary, for part-timers.

· Make sure that you take account of any SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS that
apply, for example first-aid training.

The other procedures which will ensure a good health and safety by the
business are having risk assessments. The can have health and safety
risk assessment, fire risk assessments and also display screen risk
assessment. This will ensure if equipments like for fire a fire hose
is worthy of usage when there may be a fire. This help the manager
know what they might have to replace. The other way in which a
business can ensure good health and safety is by providing protective
equipment. Like the following:

· Eye and face protection- this type of protection would be used when
people are using hazards chemicals, physical hazards, welding and

· Hand/arm and head protection

· Head and Foot Protection

· Hearing Protection

· Respiratory Protection

All these equipments have to be checked by the manager so that they
can meet the standards that have been set. The equipment has to be
checked regularly and also they have to be in good condition for their
purpose of use. This will ensure that the organisation is following
strict health and safety rules. There are other important aspects to
having and improving the health and safety in the workplace. That is
that the business has to ensure that they have notices in each
department informing the staff who and where the first aider's or
appointed persons are and where the first aid box is located. To
ensure good health and safety the manager has to make sure that a
suitable first aid is provided where assessment of first aid needs
identifies this as necessary. If they can't provide a first aid room
then they must ensure that the first aid facilities and the equipment
can be made available quickly if necessary. The business should
appoint first aider's in the business. If the person has no experience
in first aid then they should be sent place where training for first
aid is given. This will ensure that the business has people who can
help other people around them. Making sure that the business checks
all the equipment is important as they will never know when they might
need it on a person that is injured. They have to make the sure that
they have certain amount of the things that is needed for first aid.
The following shoes what they would need:

* 1 Guidance Card: noting the most important emergency procedures.

* 20 Individually Wrapped Sterile Adhesive Dressings (Assorted
sizes): for protecting small cuts or other breaks in the skin.
Waterproof dressings must be used if the casualty works as a
food/drink handler. Blue waterproof dressings should be used in a
food preparation area.

* 2 Sterile Eye Pads: sterile pad with a bandage attached to it to
use over the eye following eye injuries.

* 4 Individually Wrapped Triangular Bandages (preferably sterile):
can be used as a pad to stop bleeding, as a sterile covering for
large injuries such as burns, as a bandage, or to make a sling.

* 6 Safety Pins: may be necessary to secure bandages.

* 6 Medium Wound Dressings: a sterile un-medicated dressing pad with
a bandage attached to it.


* (Approx. 12 cm. x 12 cm.) (No.8)

* 2 Large Wound Dressings: sterile un-medicated dressing pad with a
bandage attached to it.


* (Approx. 18 cm. x 18 cm.) (No.9)

* 2 Pairs Disposable Gloves: gloves to be worn at all times when
dealing with blood or body fluids.

* Plastic Disposable Bags: to be used for disposal. This waste
should be incinerated where possible, or sealed and disposed of in
the normal way.

* Face Shield for Resuscitation: to prevent contamination by
casualty's vomit, blood or other body fluids.

* 6 Alcohol Free Wipes (for Travelling First Aid kits only).

* Sterile eyewash solution (2 x 500 ml): only necessary where the
work process presents an increased risk of eye injury and there is
no running water available.

By having the things that the are named they can ensure that nothing
is ever missing form the first aid boxes and also it will help ensure
that no one is left having no treatment on the injury.

Having procedures and policies a business is able to follow certain
rule that needs to be followed by the employees and the employer.
There are many policies and procedures that needs to be followed I
have made my own policy in which a business can make. I have drawn up
a first aid policy in which the appointed person or the first aiders
who are available can follow.

The business/organisation has to comply with the requirements of the
Health and Safety (First-aid) Regulations 1981 and the Health and
Safety Commission's Approved Code of Practice and Guidance. The extent
of the provision will be based on risk assessment.

The aim of first-aid is to reduce the effects of injury or illness
suffered at work, either caused by the work itself or by some other
factor. There must be sufficient first-aid personnel and facilities to

· give immediate assistance to casualties with common injuries or
illness and those likely to arise from specific hazards at work;

· Summon an ambulance or other professional help.

Managers will also consider the first-aid requirements of travelling
officers and anyone who works outside normal hours.

Non-employees do not have the right to first-aid, but the only way to
discharge the overall duty of care is to make some first-aid
provision. The amount will depend on the risk, but it should be
ensured that there is adequate cover as part of any customer care

Areas of Action

Priority Rules & Procedures

1. Each manager must make an assessment of the first-aid needs within
their area of responsibility.

2. Managers should ensure that the first-aid provision identified in
the assessment is provided.

3. Managers should ensure that first aiders and/or appointed persons
are trained as required by the assessment.

4. Managers should ensure that all employees are made aware of what
first-aid facilities are available and how trained personnel can be

Other procedures which an organisation would use are recording first
aid accidents and also ladder safety, safety signs and also harassment
forms procedures.

· Recording first aid- this lets a business no how many people are
getting injured at work. This would also help a manager or an
appointed person know how much provision is used so that it can be
replaced. This is important because if the provisions are not replaced
firstly they would be breaking the law and secondly someone could need
it in the need of a serious accident. I have a drawn up a very simple
first aid recording sheet which would enable a manager write down who
has had first aid. It will also record the person names and date and
also what kind of accident they have had.

· Ladder safety- some organisation use ladders well nearly all
organisation use ladders to either decorate or to reach for something
that is high. The organisation has to make sure that certain rules are
followed when using ladders. These are the procedures that
businesses/organisation have to comply with when using ladders.

European standards for ladders

1. Ladders purchased before 31 December 1995must confirm to British

2. From 1 January 1996ladders must comply with the new European
Standard for all class 2 trade ladders. These are recommended ladders
for use in schools and all other educational establishments. As from 1
January 1995all class 2 ladders which are manufactured, will have to
display the relevant BS Kite Mark.

3. Those carrying current Kite Marks carry the assurance of having
been manufactured to a specific standard. However, those not carrying
current Kite Marks may not meet current minimum safety requirements.
Factory safety officers may insist on the use of approved ladders. In
the event of an accident or injury involving a ladder, inspectors may
take a view on liability if a ladder does not comply with current
safety standards.

4. It is advisable to ensure your ladders are inspected by a competent
person. A competent person is someone who has practical and
theoretical knowledge as well as sufficient experience of working with
ladders to enable them to identify defects or weaknesses during ladder
examinations. This would normally be the manufacturer or supplier.

· Safety signs- these are important because it will show people any
harmful chemical or substances that are involved in an organisation.
It's very important that employees, general public are able to see the
signs. If for example something is flammable it has to have a clear
flammable sign not being hidden between the chemical. Or far away from
the substances. The information for the different sign and how it has
to be displayed is shown at the bottom.

Managers should ensure all necessary health and safety signs are
displayed at appropriate positions on the site both inside and outside
buildings. During normal workplace inspections and reviews, the need
for suitable signs, labels and other markings should be noted and
where practicable, pictorial signs should be displayed of an approved
format and type.

Managers should ensure that:

· necessary information and training is provided regarding the need
for compliance with all signs; and

· Necessary notices regarding safety and emergency procedures are
placed in all relevant positions.

All staff and site users should:

· Take note of the various types of health and safety signs displayed
on the premises.

· follow the information and instructions given in all signs and
notices to ensure the safety of all persons in all work activities;

· Be entirely familiar with all information displayed in key positions
on the premises regarding safety actions and emergency procedures.

Safety Signs Regulations 1980

The Safety Signs Regulations 1980 (Safety Signs and Colours) show the
types of safety signs that need to be displayed at the workplace.

Prohibition signs

The background colour must be white. The circle and bar must be red.
The enclosed symbol must be black, but not obliterate the bar. Any
text must be put on a supplementary strip, i.e. red outline circle
with crossbar - red means stop (i.e. prohibition).

Warning signs

The background colour must be yellow. The triangle must be black. The
enclosed symbol or text must be black and centrally placed, i.e.
yellow outline triangle - yellow means risk of danger (i.e. warning).

Mandatory signs

The background colour must be blue. The enclosed symbol or text must
be white and centrally placed, i.e. blue solid circle - blue means
obey (i.e. mandatory).

Safe condition signs

The background colour must be green. The enclosed symbol or text must
be white and the sign rectangular or square, i.e. green square or
rectangle, green means go (i.e. safe condition).

Fire equipment signs

These must (Fire Safety Signs, Notices and Graphic Symbols) have a red
background colour. The shape of the sign should be square or
rectangular and enclose a white symbol, i.e. red square or rectangle -
red means fire equipment.

The Health and Safety (Safety and Signals) Regulations require
employers to make additional health and safety arrangements.

· Safety signs must be used when recognised health and safety risks
cannot be suitably controlled through other means.

· Other means of communications may be necessary and could include
verbal or acoustic signals, illuminated signs and hand signals.

· Displays of signs in prescribed circumstances when hazards are
present, e.g. marking of pipe work.

Information on the selection and use of safety signs is provided as
well as the technical requirements relating to shape size and colour
for different types of sign.

The legislation excludes signs that should be used in connection with
traffic, transport or marking of dangerous substances.

* Harassment form procedure- managers have to make sure that they
listen to their employees. If they don't listen to their employees
then there could be a conflict. If some is getting harassed then
the manager has to make sure that they try and fixed the problem.
Harassment can be external or internal to an organisation. There
are many different harassment that people can go through they are
sexual, physical and non- physical. Management has to make sure
that they look after their staff.

Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety

In the Workplace


All employees who work for a business all have to take some kind of
responsibility for health and safety. They have to take responsibility
for them selves and people around them. Employees have to make sure
that they take duty of care. Duty of care means that an employee has
to take care of what they are doing. They have to make sure that they
don't cause any injuries to anyone other wise it is a criminal offence
resulting in punishment of the perpetrator. The negligent person will
not be punished; however the injured party may seek financial
compensation as a result. The compensation is paid by the individual
who has caused the loss and could amount to millions of pounds.


Responsibility of health and safety is taken care by everyone in the
business. The manager is the one in charge of making sure that all
employees new or old (if needed adequate training in health and
safety) get training in health and safety. The following will show the
responsibility each person/persons have in the organisation.

· Corporation-The ultimate authority and responsibility for
establishing and maintaining effective policies regarding health and
safety issues specific to the foundation facilities and operations
rest with the executive director.

· Safety Committee- The safety committee has been established and is
charged with evaluating policy and procedures on issues relating to
health and safety in the workplace. The committee consist of managers,
supervisors and employee representative form each unit. It is also the
responsibility of this committee to develop and coordinate an injury
and illness prevention program.

· Directors/Managers- It is the responsibility of the director/manager
to coordinate and maintain the injury and illness prevention program
and procedures to ensure effective compliance with the health and
safety policies as they relate to operation under their control.
Managers have to also make sure that they give training to the staff.
Specific areas include employee's education and training
identification and correction of unsafe conditions and record keeping.
Specifically these individual will:

Ø Give maximum support to all programs and committee as required.

Ø Instruct employees in recognising and avoiding unsafe conditions
including hazards associated with non- routine task and emergency

Ø Provide training to employees in safe work practises prior to start
of work.

Ø Review serious accidents to ensure proper reports are completed and
appropriate action is taken to prevent repetition.

Ø Documents all employee training activities. Forward documentation to
human resources.

Ø Inspect work area often to detect unsafe conditions and work
practises. Utilise foundation self inspection checklist as required.

· Supervisors-familiarise themselves with foundation safety polices,
programs and procedures. Provide complete safety training and
education of health and safety to employees prior to the task of
duties. Review accidents to ensure that proper reports are completed
and appropriate action taken to prevent repetition. Ensure that all
injuries no matter how minor are treated immediately and referred to
human resources to ensure prompt reporting to the insurance carrier.
Inspect work areas often to detect unsafe conditions and work
practises. Utilise foundation self-inspection checklist as required.

· Employees-Employees are responsible for reading and complying with
procedures and guidelines provide by their supervisor. Employees are
responsible for asking questions of their supervisors when they are
concerned about an unknown or hazardous situation. Report to their
supervisor of workplace hazards without fear of reprisal. Work in a
manner that protects themselves and co-workers. Attend scheduled
training sessions understand and comply with all applicable safety
requirements. Failure to comply with established safety rules may be
reflected in performance evaluation and may lead to disciplinary
action. No employee is required to perform any function or operation
that is considered hazardous. Wear protective equipment when working
in hazardous operation area and/or required by the supervisor. Submit
any suggestions for accident preventions which may assist in improving
working conditions or work practises to their immediate supervisor.

Employee's responsibilities

Instructions set out on COSHH safe working method statement must, so
far as is reasonably practicable, are adhered to.

Employees should use the control measures identified as part of the
COSHH assessments in the way they are intended to be used and should,
in particular:

· Use the control measures provided for materials, plant and

· Wear in a proper manner the PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

· Store the PPE when not in use in the accommodation provided.

· Remove any PPE which could cause contamination before eating,
drinking or smoking.

· Practice a high standard of personal hygiene, and make proper use of
the facilities provided for washing, showering or bathing and for
eating and drinking.

· Report promptly to management any defects discovered in any control
measure (including systems of work), device or facility, or any item
of PPE.

As these are the people who take responsibility for health and safety
they all have different stages of health and safety to look after. One
person /persons may look after in making the polices, procedure and
other people would have to look out for hazards or they have to make
sure that they follow the policies that are drawn up. But even if they
follow the health and safety there is also lots more too learn form
different hazards. They can get different information about health
safety form different business organisations. They can get more
information through architects who can help them with the building
side of the things, the police, fire service, ambulance service,
health and safety executive, environmental health officer and external

Managers and supervisors are responsible in handing out good and
useable protective equipment where it is needed. The following will
show what different kinds of protection are needed and for what types
of jobs:

Eye and Face Protection

Chemical hazards-Safety glasses are the minimum protection recommended
for all operations involving hazardous chemicals. When there is a
significant risk of splash to the eyes and face when using or
dispensing hazardous liquids, non-vented chemical goggles or safety
glasses with side shields and full-face shield offer the best

Physical hazards-when using high-pressure cleaning or spray equipment,
safety glasses with side shields and full-face shields are the
recommended PPE. Those work activities that produce chips or dust-such
as grinding/drilling, power fastening, or power tools-require safety
glasses with side shields as a minimum protection level and in some
instances may also require the use of a full face shield.

Welding-Welding operations require a full welding hood with the
appropriate tinted vision screen. Safety glasses with side shields
must be used when the hood is raised or removed. When doing
acetylene-oxygen torch soldering, brazing, or cutting, appropriately
tinted safety glasses with side shields or tinted goggles are the
appropriate PPE.

Lasers-When using lasers or when in an area with a working laser,
appropriate safety eyewear is a must. Different lasers require
different types and shades of eye protection. Consult the Radiation
Safety Department for appropriate protective eyewear.

Hand/Arm and Body Protection

When using hazardous chemicals, specialized gloves offering protection
for specific chemical families, a laboratory coat, and at times a
splash apron are the appropriate PPE. Insulated gloves and arm sleeve
covers are recommended when handling hot or cold materials. To reduce
cut or abrasion injuries, use puncture or abrasion resistant gloves,
arm sleeve covers, and at times an apron, to lessen this exposure.

Head and Foot Protection

Occasions may develop during a work shift or job duty when the use of
a hard hat or other head protection and foot protection is necessary.
All hard hats or safety shoes must meet the requirements for
protection to protect themselves form any heavy things falling on

Hearing Protection

If your work areas or specific job tasks have been designated as
requiring hearing protection, you must wear approved protective
equipment. Personal stereos or Walkmans are not considered approved
hearing protection. Supervisors are responsible for identifying
hearing protection areas and generally provide training on the use of
hearing protection equipment. Certain work areas or tasks may be
designated as requiring additional protective measures.

Respiratory Protection

Some employees are required to wear respirators for specific job
duties. Respirators include dust masks, air-purifying
negative-pressure respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus,
supplied-air respirators, and other such devices. If you wear one of
these respirators, you must have a physical exam and you must be "fit
tested" and trained before using it on your job. Departments with
employees wearing respirators must have a written Respiratory
Protection Program.

First aid requires a lot of thing when it comes to health and safety
in the workplace. Having a first aid person and the essential
equipment could save lives if there are serious injuries. The first
aid room is important is has to have the following thing in it:

· Sink with hot and water running water

· Drinking water and disposable cups

· Soap and paper towels

· First aid box

· Container suitable for the safe disposal of clinical wastes

· A couch (or folding bed) with waterproof protection and clean
pillows and blankets

· A chair

· A telephone

· An accident, incident, occupational health report book

The first aider who is appointed sometimes if the business
organisation is big then they might appoint more then 3. But whoever
is appointed has to take charge when someone is injured or falls ill
they would also have to take charge in calling for an ambulance if
required. They have to look after the first aid equipment for example
restocking the first aid box. But the first aider's are not allowed to
give any kind of medication to the injured or ill person.

Managers have to take care of making sure that they do risk
assessment. This lets the managers and the business know what the
problems are and where the problems are. By doing a risk assessment
they will be able to repair anything that is not working and improve
anything that needs to be improved. There are many things that have a
risk assessment. The manager should take responsibility of doing a
risk assessment. There are risk assessment for many things to do with
health and safety like fires, health and safety and display screen

Having a simple diagram which shows the health committees of the
organisation is simple to understand. It shows who is represented by
whom and also who has meeting with whom. I have done a flow chart that
represents this. This helps with improving the health and safety. This
gives the managers, the health and safety committee, employees, the
executives of the organisation guidance of meeting that are going to
be taken place and who has meeting with whom.

Health & Safety Committees




Senior Departmental Management

Health and Safety Adviser (Central)

Departmental Safety Adviser

Management Representatives

Trade Union Representatives


Head of Personnel Services

Health and Safety Manager

Trade Union Safety Representatives (from all trade unions)

Senior Departmental Representative

(For each department)


Health & Safety Manager

Health and Safety Adviser

Departmental Safety Advisers

Seconded Management




















Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety

In the Workplace


Risk assessment is a requirement of the management of health and
safety at work regulation 1992. A risk assessment has to be taken up
by a business but they would have to make sure that they write down
the assessment. However if they employ then five people then they have
a responsibility of making sure that they do a risk assessment. They
have to make sure that people in the organisation are aware of the
health and safety

* A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm for
example a slippery floor

* Risk is the likelihood of a hazard causing harm

Nothing can be absolutely free form risk. Therefore nothing can be
absolutely safe. However there are degree of risk and the health and
safety at work act 1974 requires that risk is reduced to a level as
low as reasonably practicable. Risk assessment is the technique to
achieve this. Risk assessment involves the following:

* Identifying the hazards resulting from the organisation activities
that could affect anyone including members of the governing body,
employees, volunteers and the general public.

* Assessing the risk of the hazard occurring

* Evaluating the likely severity of the outcome

* Eliminating the hazards if possible or else reducing them to the
lowest level of risk that is reasonable practicable.

Assessing risk requires detailed knowledge of the working practices
normally only found in people who are experienced in doing the work. I
believe that assessing risk cannot be properly done without the
cooperation and involvement of the organisations employees and
volunteers. There is no overall formula for rating risk but the main
factor that has to be taken into account are:

· The nature of the hazard

· The likelihood of it occurring

· How often it may occur

· How the hazard could affect health or safety

· The working environment e.g. lifting heavy weights could be more of
a risk in a cold and wet environment.

· The number of employees, volunteers or member of the public who
could be affected

· Potentially vulnerable people such as the young, elderly or

The results of the risk assessment will be useful in determining gaps
in skills or knowledge in the business and identifying training needs.
There are five steps to risk assessment shown below.

Step 1 look for potential hazards

When doing the assessment they would have to walk around the premises
with employee/volunteers or safety representative if available and
take critical look at the surroundings to see what could be
potentially cause harm or injury to any staff, volunteers or members
of the public. Not forgetting to ask other people's opinion in this
process they may mention problems they are not aware of and involving
them in the process usually means that they will be more committed to
the outcome. As a simple example as the manager is walking around they
might notice one of the employees reaching under tables to disconnect
a hot kettle in order to plug in a printer. The manager may realise
that this hazard which could result in an accident- the employee could
be scalded by the hot water they could hit their head on the table or
water could go into the electrical socket.

Step 2 determine who can be harmed

Do not forget to consider:

· young workers, trainees and expectant mothers, etc who may be at
particular risk;

· cleaners, visitors, maintenance workers, etc who may not be in the
workplace all the time;

· Members of the public, or people you share your workplace with, if
there is a chance they could be hurt by any work activities.

STEP 3 - Evaluate the risks and decide whether existing precautions
are adequate or more should be done

You can now sit down and complete your assessment. Consider how likely
it is that each hazard could cause harm. This will determine whether
or not they need to do more to reduce the risk. Even after all
precautions have been taken, some risk usually remains. What you have
to decide for each significant hazard is whether this remaining risk
is high, medium or low.

First, ask yourself whether you have done all the things that the law
requires. For example, in your workshops, there are legal requirements
on the prevention of access to dangerous parts of machinery. Then ask
yourself whether generally accepted industry standards are in place.
Your aim is to make all risks small by adding to your precautions as

If they seem to find that something needs to be done, draw up an
"action list" and give priority to any remaining risks which are high
and/or those which could affect most people. In taking action ask

· Can I get rid of the hazard altogether?

· If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely?

In controlling risks apply the principles below, if possible in the
following order:

· try a less risky option;

· prevent access to the hazard (e.g. by guarding);

· organise work to reduce exposure to the hazard;

· issue personal protective equipment;

· Provide welfare facilities (e.g. washing facilities for removal of
contamination and first aid).

Improving health and safety need not cost a lot. For instance, placing
a mirror on a dangerous blind corner to help prevent vehicle
accidents, or putting some non-slip material on slippery steps, are
inexpensive precautions considering the risks? Failure to take simple
precautions can cost you a lot more if an accident does happen. If you
share a work place, tell the other employers and self-employed people
about any risks your work could cause them, and what precautions you
are taking. Also, think about the risks to your own workforce from
those who share your workplace.

STEP 4 - Record your findings

If the manager has fewer than five employees they do not need to write
anything down, though it is useful to keep a written record of what
you have done. But, if they employ five or more people, they must
record the significant findings of your assessment. This means writing
down the significant hazards and conclusions. Examples might be
"Electrical installations: insulation and earthing checked and found
sound" or "Fume from welding: local exhaust ventilation provided and
regularly checked".

Risk assessments must be suitable and sufficient. The managers need to
be able to show that:

· a proper check was made;

· they asked who might be affected;

· they dealt with all the obvious significant hazards, taking into
account the number of people who could be involved;

· The precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low.

The written record can help you if an HSE inspector asks what
precautions the manager have taken, or if they become involved in any
action for civil liability. It can also remind them to keep an eye on
particular hazards and precautions. It also helps to show that they
have done what the law requires.

Refer to other documents, such as manuals, the arrangements in your
health and safety policy statement, company rules, manufacturers'
instructions, there health and safety procedures and there
arrangements for general fire safety. These may already list hazards
and precautions and you do not need to repeat it. They must tell there
employees about the findings.

STEP 5 - Review your assessment and revise it if necessary

Sooner or later the employer will bring in new machines, substances
and procedures which could lead to new hazards. If there is any
significant change, add to the assessment to take account of the new
hazard. Do not amend the orighinal assessment for every trivial change
or for each new job unless they introduce significant new hazards. In
any case, it is good practice to review the assessment from time to

These are the five steps that a business should take account for if
they want make sure that they do a good risk assessment. I have on the
following page made my own risk assessment that a business can use.
This risk assessment will have all things that is needed for a manger
or a health and safety representative to make sure that they a good
risk assessment.







Company Name:

Company Address:


(Date :)







List significant hazards here:

List groups of people who are at risk from the significant hazards you
have identified:

List existing controls or note where the information may be found.
List risks which are not adequately controlled and the action needed:

NOTE: You must tell your employees about your findings.

They have a three step risk assessments as for the steps four and five
they can go back to review there risk assessment and also they have to
make sure that record their risk assessment.

First aid assessment

All employers have a duty under law to provide first aid facilities
and equipment which is adequate and appropriate for the workplace. By
law employers must:

* Make an assessment to decide what first aid facilities are
adequate and appropriate for the organisation

* Provide adequate equipment and facilities

For instance an organisation which refurbishes old gas ovens and
fridges will have different first aid requirements to an organisation
offering computer training to the unemployed. This is why an
assessment needs to be carried out and why the regulations do not give
a definitive list for outlining the minimum standards all
organisations have to achieve.

Factors to be considered in carrying out first aid assessment

* Workplace hazards and risk- for instance are there any dangerous
machines or chemicals being used?

* The size of the organisation- the more personnel you have the
grater the risk of someone needing first aid

* The organisation history's of accident

* The nature and distribution of the workforce- do personnel work
alone or in remote areas?

* The nature of activities- the assessment of an organisation which
takes parties of young children canoeing will be very different
from that of an organisation arranging a school trips to the
theatre. If minibuses are used are first aids kits fitted? Are
personnel trained to administer first aid

* The availability of emergency medical service- some countryside
organisation work in very remote location

* Employees working on shared or multi-occupied sites- it is very
easy to assume the business or organisation next door will have a
first aid kit or first aider

* Holidayand other absences- absences which may leave your
organisation with no first aiders or appointed persons.

Assessment is the key to all above points

After the first aid assessment is completed the managers will be able
to use the results obtain to decide on the type of first aid provision
they will need and the number of first aiders or appointed person
required. They must as a minimum have someone who is able and
available to take charge in an emergency. This individual is known as
the appointed person. An appointed person is someone who has basic
first aid knowledge and is available whenever people are at work. They
can take charge in an emergency and are responsible for calling the
emergency services. The following is the first aid assessment that an
organisation can use for assessing there first aid.

Workplace First Aid Assessment


Size and layout of the workplace:

Area: __________________________________________________________

Single Storey/Multi-Storey Complex: __________________________________

Access between Floors: ____________________________________________

Number and Distribution of Employees:

Number of Staff: _____________________________

Overtime Worked / After Hours: __________________

Are any employees isolated: _____________________

Are members of the public present: ________________

Nature of Hazards and Severity of Risk:

Known Hazards (refer to Incident Form):




Severity of Risk:


Do MSDSs and Product Labels specify any first aid requirements ?


Location of the Workplace

Nearest Hospital: ________________________________________________

Nearest Medical Service: __________________________________________

Time to Medical Service: __________________________________________

Known Occurrences of Accidents and Illnesses

(Refer to the last 12 months of accident data)



Near Misses:



Workplace First Aid Assessment

Outcomes of Assessment

Contents of the First Aid Kit: __________________________________



Number and Location of Kits: __________________________________



First Aid Room: ______________________________________________

Competencies Required of First Aiders: _________________________



Training Required of First Aiders: _____________________________



Training required for Staff: ____________________________________



Number of First Aiders Required: ______________________________

Health and Safety Representative: _______________________________

Date: _________________________________________________________

First Aid Officers: ____________________________________________




This first aid assessment sheet is a simple way in which an
organisation is able to asses their first aid. It's very important for
a business to do this as I have explained on the above.

Fire risk assessment

The attached form has been designed to assist the managers in
undertaking a fire risk assessment (FRA). It is recommended that the
assessment is undertaken by the HSC accompanied by the local Fire

Step 1 Identify the Hazard

The Regulations require that you:

· Assess the fire risks in you workplace; consider sources of
ignition, combustible material and structural features that could
promote the spread of fire.

· Check that a fire can be detected in a reasonable time and that
people can be warned.

· Check that people who may be in the building at the time can get out

· Ensure that reasonable fire fighting equipment, of the correct type,
is available.

· Check that those in the building know what to do in the event of a

· Check that the fire safety equipment is correctly located and

List the hazards and controls on the FRA Form, where hazards are
identified they should take steps to reduce the risks by removing or
reducing the numbers of ignition sources and quantities of combustible
materials in the workplace. To reduce the risk to people there should
be adequate fire escape routes, fire detection, alarms and fire
fighting equipment. There is little they can do about the structure of
the premises but take note of any ducting which is not adequately
sealed or foam furniture which does not comply with modern fire
standards. Take steps to rectify these matters, for example by
contacting Estates Division, and document your action.

Step 2 Estimate the Risk

Armed with this information a risk assessment can then be produced
using the following form and fire risk assessment ratings to identify
the level of risk within the workplace. Estimate the likelihood of
harm and the severity of the consequences should a fire occur, then
calculate the overall risk rating. Where there are several workplaces
with similar hazards in the same area. This process will allow an
overall assessment of the building or area to be given on the
principle assessment form whilst still identifying specific risks in
individual workplaces.

Step 3 Further Action

Once completed the FRA Form should be signed by the person carrying
out the assessment and countersigned by the Head of Unit. Where a risk
rating higher than 'Low' has been identified appropriate action must
be instigated to reduce risks as low as practicable. A copy of the FRA
must be retained by the HSC and the original sent to the OH&S Section.

Step 4 Review the Assessment

Assessments must be reviewed if there is any significant change to the
workplace or its use; it is also good practice to review assessments
regularly to ensure their continued validity. Do not amend the
assessment for every trivial change, but if a new task or procedure is
introduced into the work area consider the effects it may have on
existing assessments. Each time the assessment is reviewed, the
appropriate section of the form should be completed.

Fire Risk Assessment Form


Area assessed by this

Numbers of staff in

Possible numbers of visitors in

Specific Hazards Identified: (e.g. open flames, flammable liquids)

Means of Raising Alarm and Escape: (Clear signage and unobstructed
routes, assembly points)

Fire fighting Equipment: (e.g. types of extinguishers, sprinklers)

Control Measures: (Are there sufficient trained Wardens, Are there
written procedures?)

Assessment of Risk, A*B = Risk Level:



Remedial actions required: (Additional equipment, training,

Action taken: (Annotate with date)

Assessors Name:..............................

Signature:......................................... Date of

Head of Unit Signature:.........................................

Date of review and assessor:

Date of review and assessor:

Date of review and assessor:

Date of review and assessor:

A fire occurs when a source of ignition, fuel and oxygen combine in
the correct quantities. If any one of these is missing, a fire cannot
start. Taking steps to prevent these coming together will therefore
reduce the chances of a fire occurring.

Emergency escape lighting may be needed if areas of the workplace are
without natural daylight or are used at night. The relevant parts of
the workplace should be checked with the lights off to see whether
there is sufficient borrowed light from other sources to illuminate
escape routes e.g. street lights or unaffected lighting circuits.
Where there is insufficient light, some form of emergency lighting
should be provided. Emergency escape lighting should:

· Indicate the escape routes clearly

· Provide illumination along escape routes to allow safe movement
towards the final exits

· Ensure that the fire alarm call points and fire fighting equipment
can be easily located.

To ensure that health and safety is maintained they have to make sure
that they have the correct assessment material to ensure that they
record any fire hazard. I have appendix A and appendix B. Appendix A
is about recording how many fire drills they have. Appendix B is a
fire safety inspection form for a business. This helps when not doing
a fire risk assessment. This just enables a business to see what
hazards they have currently and let them check the equipments.
Appendix B also has to been done every six months. These materials
will help a business by them making sure that fire is not a hazard as
it can be very deadly.

Appendix A: Records of fire drills

Fire Drill Record




Full / Part


Start Time

Finish Time

Total Time

Number of staff present

Approximate number of people present

Comments & Signature

Appendix B: Fire Safety Inspection Checklist

FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST - to be completed every 3 months

PREMISES:…………………………………………. DATE:……………………

COMPLETED BY (PRINT NAME):……………………………………………….

Tick the appropriate column. If you tick "yes" to all the questions,
fire safety is being well managed. If you tick "no" to a question, you
will need to take action to improve fire management.






Is fire alarm tested weekly ?

Has a fire drill been held within the past 6 months?

Is there a means for calling the emergency services?

Are fire doors kept closed?

Are lifts signed not to be used in a fire?

Are escape routes clear of storage?

Are escape routes well signed?

Are fire notices completed & near the call points?

Are suitable fire extinguishers available?

Have extinguishers been serviced in past year?

Has electrical equipment been tested in past year?

Are extension leads kept to a minimum?

Are multi-adaptors avoided?

Is the smoking policy followed?

Are flammable substances kept to a minimum?

Is the workplace tidy & free from unnecessary combustible items?


Can night staff & staff that "sleep in" escape easily?

Can disabled staff or clients escape easily?

Can cleaners & ancillary workers escape easily?

Are contractors shown fire escape routes?

Are people hiring venues inducted & shown the fire alarm & escape


COSHH Assessments

A COSHH assessment shall be completed for each product on inventory
which have been identified as hazardous to health and for each work
activity that involves a substance hazardous to health, i.e. any
harmful substances given off during the activity (dust, fumes etc.).

Each individual completing a COSHH assessment must be competent to do
so. Assessors should have received suitable and sufficient training
prior to undertaking this task.

The Manager needs to identify the following information for each

· Constituents of the product including the form in which it is used.

· Any hazard associated with those constituents, i.e. what effect they
could have both short term and long term.

· Exposure type: inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin.

· How the product is actually used.

· Amount of the product used.

· Where the product will be used.

· Who could be affected, to what extent and for how long? This
includes persons other than employees, e.g. tenants, members of the
public. Check out actual operations. Monitor to produce and identify
answers, if previous experience is not available.

· How the substance is stored.

· Emergency procedures.

· Control measures currently in use.

A conclusion about the possible risks to health needs to be made from
the above information. These will either be:

· The risks are insignificant.

· There are risks to health but these have been controlled so far as
is reasonably practicable.

· There are risks to health which are not adequately controlled and
further preventative measures are necessary.

The following shows the COSHH assessment form that a business would


Complete for all substances hazardous to health:

Name of Person Completing Form:





Product Name:



How is the product actually used?


Estimated quantity used per week or month?

Location(s) used:

Persons exposed:


Job Titles:

Service Users:

Members of the Public

Young Persons

Others: (Please state)

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Estimated exposure time per day:

Is the product used in poorly ventilated areas? Yes No

If Yes, please give details:

Is the product used with other chemicals? Yes No

Is accidental contact with other chemicals possible? Yes No

If Yes to either, please give details:

Is dust, gas, vapour, fume or mist given off during its use? Yes No

If Yes, please give details:

Where and how is it stored?

How is it transported?

How is the product and the empty container disposed of?

What is the procedure for spillages?

What, if any control measures are currently used? (tick those that

Safe system of work


General ventilation

Reduced exposure time



Local ventilation (LEV)

Personal Protective Equipment:







Other (please specify)

Are there any exposure standards? Yes No

Has any monitoring been carried out? Yes No

(if yes, refer to monitoring records)


The risks are insignificant;

There are risks to health but these have been controlled so far as is
reasonably practicable provided control measures are monitored; or

There are risks to health which are not adequately controlled and
further preventative measures are necessary.

Any action required:

Any other comments:

To the best of my knowledge the above information is correct and

[IMAGE][IMAGE]Signed Date

Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety

In the Workplace


Many businesses have many different health and safety rules which they
have to comply with. Some businesses have other health and safety
rules which will be for a pacific business like a restaurant business.
All businesses which supply food and drink have to comply with certain
different laws which may not be needed in a building site.

The supply of food and drink is common activity in the majority of
organisation. The requirement to provide food and drink which is safer
is absolute any person falling ill as a result of culinary activities
may be able to seek damages if they have been negligent. There is a
general duty of care to provide wholesome safe food and drink in all
circumstances but if they are providing food for sale then they have
to comply with the regulations. Illness and deaths due to food
poisoning have been given high media profile in recent years. The food
safety act 1990 requires for human consumption is safe not falsely
labelled or presented. There are other regulations regarding food
hygiene made under this act and the three component areas of which may
apply to organisation which sell or supply food.

The food safety (general food hygiene) regulation 1995

The regulations create the basic framework for food hygiene law
specifying the basic hygiene conditions fro food businesses. These
regulation apply to food which is produced commercially for profit and
food produced by voluntary groups or any other non-profit making
organisation. The person in charge must ensure that:

* Food handlers are supervised and trained in food hygiene matters

* Those in charge of the food production control the quality of the
food by good management of hygiene.

The regulation also requires:

* Personal hygiene for persons handling food

* Sanitary provision and wash basins

* Clean work area and equipment

* Suitable premises

* Arrangement for food waste

* Arrangement for movable or temporary premises including transport
e.g. check that the site is suitable and the water supply must be
whole some and without risk

The food safety (temperature control) regulations 1995

These specify the temperature at which foods that are likely to
support the growth of pathogenic bacteria must be kept. Generally
speaking food which can support bacterial growth must be kept at
temperature lower than 8C or higher than 60C- check the temperature
gauges on fridges or hot plate.

The food premises (registration) regulations 1995

These require that food premises (including vehicles) be registered by
the local authorities in order that the premises can be inspected.
Organisations dealing with food must register with the local authority
if their premises are used on five or more consecutive days or they
are used on more than five days in any weeks. They will not be
required to register of they supply beverages/biscuits to a business
whose main activity is not the sale of food or if you supply food via
automatic vending machines. A maximum fine of £1,000 can be imposed
for failing to register with the local authority well advices to
check. The food safety act 1990 and the regulations allows a defence
of due diligence. Here the defendant needs to show that they took all
reasonable precautions and record system of control, training records,
cleaning regimes and risk assessment will need to be evident. If
catering is a regular activity there will be key personnel who handle
food to attend a basic food & hygiene certificate course.

Actual cases of food poisoning and salmonella are not recorded and the
'notified cases of food poisoning' include a significant number of non
food borne cases and should not be used as an indication of food
safety standards. It should also be noted that approximately 20% of
food borne illness is acquired abroad.

Food Poisoning Notifications


Salmonella Isolates


Food Poisoning Outbreaks


Others business which have extra legal constraints are builders. Any
type of building job requires the general health and safety laws but
they have to also comply with other legislations. People who do
building work have to comply with some different laws then other
business organisations. Because their job consist of many hazards
which is very easily turned into injuries. One of the laws that they
have to comply with is wearing head protection. Head protection is
provided to give protection against foreseeable risks of injury to the
head to which the wearer may be exposed. Most head protection is in
the form of a "hard hat", normally of plastic construction. If the
plastic is not properly cared for, its tensile strength may be
affected and it may no longer be strong enough to provide adequate

Under the Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 and the
Personal Protection Equipment at Work Regulations 1992, employers must
provide, maintain and replace head protection whenever necessary and
employees must take reasonable care of any head protection provided
and report any loss or obvious defect to their employer. Both employer
and user must read and understand the requirements of the above
regulations. The head protection provided should also be compatible
with the work or activity carried out by the wearer, for example, a
helmet with a little or no peak is functional for a surveyor or
scaffold erector who is constantly looking upwards.

How to prevent damage and ensure damaged head protection Is not used

· Hard hats should be replaced at least within the manufacturers
recommended time period (approximately every three years).

· Any hard hat that has suffered any significant impact damage should
be replaced immediately.

· Any hard hat exposed to a solvent (e.g. point spillage) should be
replaced immediately.

· While not in use, hard hats should be stored in a cool dark place,
preferably in the manufacturer's original box. They should never be
left in the back window of a car.

· Names, symbols or any other markings should never be painted or
glued to a hard hat.

· Hard hats should be carefully examined both before and after use for
any signs of damage.

Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety

In the Workplace


Businesses have to make sure that they have policies in their
organisation. There are many policies that businesses have to adopt to
when it comes to health and safety. One of the policies that a
business has to have is health and safety policy. The policy would
consist of responsibilities that business has and also the general
statement on what the policy would consist on. There are many policies
in a business like fire policies, first aid, COSHH policies, display
screen policies etc. Policies help a business in making sure that they
have everything in order that is to do with they also show who has
responsibility to what. These polices are just some that a business
can have but there are many more which a business has.

Health and Safety Policy

1. The organisation would have to conform with all statutory
legislation and recognises and accepts its responsibility as an
employer for providing so far as it is reasonably practicable, safe
and healthy work places and working environment, both physically and
psychologically, for all its employees, volunteers, other workers and
people who use Council services.

2. the organisation would have to take all steps within its ability to
meet this responsibility, paying particular attention to workplace
risk assessment, health surveillance, and the provision and
maintenance of:

(i) Plant, equipment and systems of work;

(ii) Arrangements for the use, handling, storage and transport of
articles and substances;

(iii) Information, instruction, training and supervision to enable all
employees to recognise hazards and contribute positively to their own
safety and health at work and to the safety and health of others;

(iv) Access to and the condition of work places;

(v) Welfare facilities at work;

(vi) To provide sufficient organisation and arrangements for the
health and safety of persons not in the Council's employment that
visit to carry out their duties or regularly occupy all or part of
Council designated working environment.

3. Without detracting from the paramount responsibility of managers
and supervisors for ensuring safe conditions at work, the organisation
would have to continue to keep under review the organisational
arrangements to provide competent technical advice on health, safety
and welfare matters where this is necessary to assist line management
in its task.

4. All reasonable action will be taken to protect the employees, and
others who are the organisations responsibility under the Health and
Safety and Work Act etc 1974 and its associated Regulations, from
physical and/or verbal abuse.

5. No safety policy is likely to be successful unless it actively
involves employees themselves. The organisation would have to
therefore co-operate with safety representatives appointed by
recognised trade unions and will provide them where necessary with
facilities to carry out their role. The organisation will also
co-operate in the development of appropriate safety committee
arrangements for joint consultation on health and safety matters.

6. The organisation has to also remind employees that they should
ensure they understand the health and safety precautions connected
with their job and observe them, make use of the protective equipment
and clothing available and report defects and hazards to their

7. This statement to be read in conjunction with the employee's
departmental safety policy and departmental codes of practice.

8. This statement, all departmental health and safety policies and any
revision of the policies must be brought to the notice of all
employees along with sufficient health and safety induction training
for all new employees.

9. This statement will be reviewed, added to, or modified from time to
time. Supplementary statements will be issued as appropriate cases
relating to the work of particular departments or group of employees.

Risk Assessment Policy

The business organisation would comply with the requirements of the
Management of the Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. As an
employer it will ensure the suitable and sufficient assessment of:

· the risks to the health and safety of it's employees to which they
are exposed whilst they are at work; and

· The risk to the health and safety of persons not in their
employment* arising out of or in connection with the conduct of its


* Persons not in their employment" includes sub-contractors,
customers, end-users, the public, emergency personnel, etc. who can be
affected by the undertaking. Risk to such people can arise in
connection with the operations, premises, plant, purchasing function,
design function, services, storage and transport operations, waste
handling and any other aspect of the undertaking.

It is the organisations aim to ensure that arrangements are in place
to ensure a systematic approach to the assessment and control of
risks. The risk assessment procedure provides a practical approach
that is cost-effective and will assist in management fulfilling health
and safety responsibilities. Assessments will enable management to
plan, introduce and monitor measures needed to ensure compliance with
health and safety legislation, to implement best practice and to
ensure that particular risk are eliminated altogether or controlled
adequately at all times.

Assessments will be reviewed when there is a reason to suspect they
are no longer valid or where there has been a significant change in
the matter to which it relates.

Where the assessment identifies the need for preventative and
protective measures, these shall be implemented using the following

· avoiding risk altogether e.g. doing the work in a different way;

· evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided;

· combating the risk at source;

· adapting the work to the individual (consulting those who will be
affected), especially as regards the design of workplaces, the choice
of work equipment and the choice of working methods, with a view, in
particular to alleviating monotonous work and work at a predetermined
work rate and increasing the control individuals have over the work
they are responsible for;

· adapting to technical progress;

· take advantage of technological and technical progress which often
offers opportunities for improved working methods;

· Implement risk prevention measures to form part of a coherent
overall prevention policy and approach. This will take into account
the organisation of work, working conditions, social relationships and
the influence of factors relating to the working environment;

· giving collective protective measures priority over individual
protective measures;

· giving appropriate instructions to employees;

· The existence of a positive health and safety culture within the

All significant findings of risk assessments will be recorded.

Employees will be consulted on risk assessments which affect their
work and will be provided with comprehensible and relevant information
on the risks to their health and safety identified by those
assessments including the preventative and protective measures.

Anyone undertaking a risk assessment will be adequately trained in the
risk procedure and be familiar with the activities involved in the
activity being assessed. For some service/sections of business,
presenting few or simple hazards, a suitable and sufficient risk
assessment will be a very straightforward process based on judgement
and requiring no specialist skills or complicated techniques. For a
few intermediate cases specialist advice may be sought in respect of
unfamiliar risks, such as those requiring some knowledge of ergonomics
or more complex processes and techniques, and in these instances the
departmental safety adviser will be able to help. The depth of risk
assessment and time spent on it need not be great; it will depend upon
the risks posed.

Manual Handling Policy

A business organisation has to comply with the requirements of the
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. Where the general risk
assessment indicates the possibility of risks to employees from the
manual handling of loads, the following hierarchy of measures will be

1. Avoiding hazardous manual handling operations so far as reasonably

2. Completing a suitable and sufficient assessment of any hazardous
manual handling operation that cannot be avoided.

3. Reducing the risk from injury from those operations so far as is
reasonably practicable.

'Manual Handling Operations' means any transporting or supporting of a
load (including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or
moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force, as opposed to mechanical
handling by crane, lift truck etc.

'Load' includes any person and any animal. A load in this context must
be a discrete moveable object.

It is the businesses aim to ensure that arrangements are in place to
ensure a systematic approach to the assessment and control of risks.
Manual handling accidents cause a lot of time to be lost and are
probably the most common accidents. Assessments will enable management
to plan, introduce and monitor measures needed to ensure compliance
with health and safety legislation and to implement best practice.


a. A business organisation, in recognition of its duties under the
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 towards its employees,
tenants, visitors, service users, contractors and members of the
public, undertakes to manage responsibly all asbestos containing
material within its control.

b. The business organisation will not differentiate between the health
risks presented by the three most commonly used types of asbestos,
Crocidolite (blue), Amosite (brown) and Chrysotile (white).

c. The business organisation aims is to prevent the exposure to
asbestos of anyone who may be affected by the businesses activities.
Where this is not reasonably practicable, the business will have to
reduce exposure to the lowest level reasonably practicable, by
measures other than the use of personal protective equipment. The
business organisation will also reduce the numbers of people exposed
as low as reasonably practicable.

d. The aims to undertake a suitable and sufficient assessment of all
non-domestic premises to determine whether asbestos is or is liable to
be present and to apply the businesses Asbestos Risk Assessment
Scheme. These assessments will be reviewed if there is reason to
suspect it is no longer valid or there are significant changes in the
premises. For Housing properties, assessments will be based on a
survey of a representative sample of 20% of the housing stock.

e. Where the assessment shows asbestos is present or liable to be
present, they will have to ensure a written asbestos plan identifying
its location is prepared. This plan should be clearly understandable.

f. The business has to recognise that its management responsibility
for asbestos containing material and will prioritise all asbestos
treatment works. In non-domestic premises where asbestos has been
sampled and identified as such, this will be clearly labelled.

g. The business organisation will maintain registers of all identified
asbestos containing material within the buildings it owns or occupies.
These registers will be kept and updated by Property Services
(Corporate Services Department).

h. Where an assessment has not been completed, any materials not
readily recognised in buildings and fittings (e.g. glass, wood etc)
will be deemed to contain asbestos and treated as such.

i. The business will have to provide information on identified or
suspected asbestos to occupiers of its premises and any other
appropriate persons. Where asbestos based material has been identified
on a sample survey the occupiers of all similar dwellings in the block
should be notified of the likely locations of asbestos, based on the
results of the sample survey.

j. The organisation will not undertake or contract out any work to any
building without adequate information on the nature, condition and
extent of any asbestos containing material likely to be disturbed. Any
corporate or departmental asbestos register/database should be
consulted, along with the premises asbestos plan. Works orders shall
indicate that this has occurred or include details of the asbestos

k. The business organisation will not carry out any work that exposes
or is liable to expose any person to asbestos without ensuring a
suitable and sufficient assessment has been completed of the risk
created by that exposure (work assessment), including the control
measures required. No work will be undertaken unless the required
control measures have been properly implemented. Where the work
assessment indicates the likelihood that the action level will be
exceeded, the work shall be undertaken by a licensed contractor.

l. The business organisations directors will have to provide adequate
information, instruction and training for all employees who are
involved in the management are liable to be exposed to during the
course of their employment. All contractors who are liable to be
exposed to asbestos will be required to show evidence of similar
information, instruction and training to their staff, as part of the
vetting procedure for the Approved List.

Polices allows a business to work better. The manager in the business
have to make sure that they show the polices to there employees.
Polices is a rule that has to be in a business organisation so people
will follow the rules of the business and also the law. The policies
of the organisation would be drawn up by the cooperation itself. As
are the one who are responsible in making sure that the make a good
policy for the business. But as they have the overall power on making
the policies the safety committee will be in charge of evaluating the
policy's and the procedures that have been drawn up. The impact of
having a policy in a business is that there will be fewer mistakes in
the organisation. There will be fewer injuries through following the
health and safety policies. This helps as this give the business a
good image as they would net have to go through any legal requirements
when someone is injured like a customer. As there are changes in the
laws. If there are changes to any law which is for the business the
business organisation has the responsibility of making sure that they
change their policies if they have to. This would cost money and time
but at the end of the day they would be better of spending money and
time in changing around their policy then rather them going to court
or getting a fine for not following the law. A policy can always be
improved as the laws changes. The policies are changed in a business
so that they can make sure that have people following the rules.
Policies can be improved by the organisation

· Risk assessments

· risk checklist

· get feedback from there employees

· getting advice form health executives

all these people can try and help make a policy better then currently
which is used by a business. These people will be able to give advice
on what needs top be improved. As well as people also checklists and
risk assessment will also help as they can draw up a policy so people
would follow them. This will stop any current or new hazards that are
discovered returning.

But if the business organisation thinks that if by not changing it
nothing will happen to them then they are wrong. If a business doesn't
change its policy's people will not follow the new rules that are
meant to be. They will be breaking the law. And if someone is injured
because of the changes of the law has not be drawn up into the
policies then the business can be sued and fined. This would lead to
the organisation of having a bad reputation as people will see that
they are breaking the law. There sales figure will fall as well as
staff turnover would rise. This would also demotivate staff which
would lead to them leaving eventually.
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