Investigating the Factors Affecting How Quickly Hot Water Cools

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Investigating the Factors Affecting How Quickly Hot Water Cools

Aim: -to sees how quickly water-cools after boiling at different
volumes of water with lids on.

Background: - heat can be lost in many ways and also gain. In human we
gain heat by chemical reactions happening mostly in contracting cells
of active muscle and the cells of the liver. We also gain it from the
sun, which is absorbed through the skin and by eating hot food and
drinks.

Heat is lost to the air by exposed surfaces of the body by conduction
convection and radiation. Heat is also lost by evaporation. The cold
air we breathe in and cold food and drinks products absorb heat and
take heat away. We also lose or gain heat by moving into a colder or
warmer place or by taking off or putting on a piece of clothing and to
take exercise to keep warm.

WHAT HAPPENS TO MOLECULES WHEN THEY ARE HEATED?

When molecules are heated the molecules vibrate faster and faster and
kinetic energy of the particles increases. In the end they have so
much kinetic energy that the particles begin to separate and move more
freely.

HOW DO BIRDS CONSERVE THEIR BODY TEMPERATURE HIGHER THAN THEIR
SURROUNDINGS?

When the temperature is cold birds tend to ruffle their feather, if
you have seen a bird do this they look fatter than they actually are.
What they're doing is trapping air between their feathers and warming
the air. This acts as an insulator and therefore keeps their body
temperature higher than the surrounding.

Hypothesis: - the breaker with the least amount of water in it will
show that it will cool down faster over a period of time because there
are less molecules vibrating together and bumping into each other and
therefore will cool down quicker.

A table of variables
====================

Name of variable

How will it be changed?

Water (independent variable)

The water is changing by the volume in the beaker.

MLA Citation:
"Investigating the Factors Affecting How Quickly Hot Water Cools." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Mar 2019
<https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=121905>.

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Variables that must be kept constant
------------------------------------

Variable
========

How are these under control?
============================

Beakers
=======

Keeping them the same size
==========================

Thermometers
============

Kept at room temperature until they are being put into the water
================================================================

Type of surface area the cup is on
==================================

Keeping them on the same surface area.
======================================

The air
=======

Keeping it still with no windows open and checking the temperature
regularly
==================================================================

Temperture
==========

Checking room temperature constantly
====================================

Method: -
=========

1. I would get 9 medium size beakers, 1 big beaker, 3 thermometers
and a stopwatch and I would place them on a table.

2. Then I would fill the kettle with water and bring to the boil.

3. I would then Poor a little bit of boiling water from the kettle
into the big beaker.

3. I would swirl it around to make the big beaker hot and throw away
the water.

4. In the remaining 9 beakers poor 100ml into the big beaker and
then into beaker 1, then poor 150ml into the big beaker first then
into beaker 2 and poor 200ml into the big beaker and then into
beaker 3 and place lids on each beaker.

5. Then Take the temperatures from each breaker and start stopwatch.

6. Then Record the temperature every two minutes until 20 minutes
have past.

7. Repeat this 3 times and average the results

Apparatus list: -

* 9 medium size beakers

* 1 big beaker

* A stopwatch

* A kettle

* 1350ml of water

* 9 thermometers

A table to show how water cool at different volumes with lids on
----------------------------------------------------------------

Time (minutes)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Volume (ml)

Temperature (*C)

100

78

71

66

64

61

58

56

54

52

50

49

100

80

73

69

65

62

60

57

55

53

51

50

100

76

70

66

63

61

58

56

54

52

51

49

150

78

74

70

66

68

61

59

57

54

53

51

150

79

76

72

69

66

64

62

60

58

57

50

150

78

74

70

67

65

63

61

59

57

55

54

200

78

75

72

70

67

65

63

62

60

58

57

200

77

74

71

69

67

65

63

62

60

58

57

200

76

78

70

67

65

63

61

59

58

56

55

Time (minutes)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Volume (ml)

Temperature (*C)

100

78

71

67

64

61

59

56

54

52

50

49

150

78

74

70

67

66

62

60

58

56

55

51

200

77

76

71

69

66

64

62

61

59

57

56

Conclusion: - the trend of the graph shows that on 100ml the
temperature decreases over a period of 2 minutes, then it became
stable for 2 minutes. Between 4-8 minutes it decreases rapidly and
then decreases steadily for the last 2 minutes.

At 150ml it decreased slowly for the first 2 minutes, then rapidly
between 2-6minutes then it decrease steadily between 6-10 minutes. At
200ml it increased between 0-2 minutes, then it decreased steadily for
2 minutes.

Apart from the first 2 minutes at 200ml of water the particles are
vibrating faster and faster using all their kinetic energy and
therefore losing heat.

Evaluation: - the things that were done wrong in this experiment are,
as follows- didn't leave enough time for the thermometers to reach the
correct temperature before starting stopwatch. The experiment cooled
down quicker than one might of thought. The experiment wasn't long
enough.
======================================================================

Thing that could have been done to make it a fair test
======================================================

One would leave one minute at the start so that the thermometer can
reach correct temperature. One might put lids on the beakers to stop
the heat escaping so quickly. To make the experiment twice as long and
to do more than one of each to get an average to make a fair test.

Odd results
-----------

The anomalous results that were found on this experiment are between
2-4 minute on 100ml and 0-4 minutes on 200ml of water. This experiment
needs to be repeated 2 or 3 times to make it a fair test.

As my hypothesis says the beaker with the least amount of water would
cool faster than the beaker with the most amount and as my table and
graph shows it was correct.