The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes

The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes

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The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes

We are doing an investigation on the effect of different temperatures
on enzymes. An enzyme is a protein molecule which speeds up chemical
reactions. In this investigation the enzyme we will be concentrating
on is amylase. This enzyme is produced by the salivary gland. It
speeds up the break down of starch into simple sugar. This reaction
happens in the mouth and is the start of chemical digestion. Starch
cannot pass through the lining of the intestine, it is too big. The
simple sugar can. This is why we digest our food. In this
investigation we will be testing the starch at 0 degrees, 40 degrees,
60 degrees and 80 degrees.

Variables

There are a number of things that may effect the results we may get at
the end of the investigation. These are:

· Complexity- if the investigation is too complex we may run out of
time or end up with poor quality results

· Time- if we do not plan carefully we will run out of time and be
unable to finish the investigation

· Resources- we must check that all the equipment you need is
available and intact and that all the resources, such as chemicals,
are available in the amounts you require.

· Repeating- we must repeat the experiment a sufficient number times.
This is to make sure that we are doing a fair test and getting similar
results every time.

· Fair testing- we must make sure that we are doing a fair test
otherwise the results will be incorrect. We must use the same amount
of chemicals every time and time the experiment the same.

Prediction

I predict that the enzymes will work best at 40 degrees because it is
nearest to 37 degrees which is body temperature and this is where they
will react in their natural habitat.

I think that the enzymes will not work at 0 degrees because there is
not enough energy for the starch to enter the enzyme in order to make

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a reaction.

I think that the enzymes will react very quickly at 60 degrees because
there is lots of energy and the enzymes split up the starch quicker.

At 80 degrees I predict that the enzymes will actually work slower
than at 60 degrees even though there is more energy. However they will
still work quickly. This is because enzymes are made out of pure
protein and when they get very hot they start to go solid and white
like an egg white. This is because they have reached a temperature
that they can't get any hotter.

Method

Equipment list:

3 Heating baths- 40 degrees- 60 degrees- 80 degrees

Beaker

Ice

Test tubes

Test tube rack

Visking tubing

Sample tray

Take starch and amylase and put them in visking tubing. Place the
tubing in a beaker of water. Leave for 10 minutes. After this time
test the water out side the tubing for starch and sugar. I predict
that there will be sugar in the water because it has gone through the
visking tubing just like it does in the intestine. Put a few drops of
the water in the sample tray and add some idiodene to the water. If it
goes black this means that starch is present. Repeat this experiment 3
times to make it a fair test. Now do the same experiment with the
other temperature water making sure to repeat it 3 times.

In this experiment we are using hot water and chemicals so there are
some safety rules that we must follow. Because we will be using
chemicals we must wear safety goggles. We must be careful not to burn
ourselves on the hot water. There are normal safety precautions that
we should use every time we go in the lab that must be followed in
this investigation as well, like making sure to tie hair back and to
be sensible and not run around the lab.

Obtaining evidence

Before we started our experiment we checked that our equipment was in
good working order. For instance the glass wear is clean and has no
chips or cracks or the stop watch works smoothly and the stop and
start button work properly.

When we carried out our experiment we stuck to the plan as far as
possible but we did modify the experiment a bit in order to get more
accurate results. For example, when we tested the water of higher
temperatures like 60 degrees and 80 degrees we only left it 5 seconds
instead of 10 second so we were able to mark exactly how much time it
takes for the enzyme to work.

Here is my results table:

Temperature

average

rate

x 100

4

-

-

-

Did not work

22

40.00

0.025

2.5

41

10.00

0.100

10

60

31.67

0.032

3.16

82

68.33

0.015

1.14

The accuracy of my table of results is not very good because the
temperatures are not precise and what they should be in the plan. This
could be because of a fault in the heating baths.
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