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This document supports the design and manufacture of the hardware
coursework for the GCSE Design & Technology course 2004. The aim of
the coursework was to design and make a promotional display for the
entrance of a Supermarket Store to promote a new chocolate bar. My
solution for this problem was to provide an interactive game, which
promotes the new Cadbury's Mye chocolate bar.
Firstly, I generated some initial ideas on how I was going to solve
the problem. From these ideas, I selected one, which was my final
idea. Research was necessary to support the technical parts of my
solution and to help me decide what components to use.
I constructed a design specification, which defined the system and
gave me a boundary to work within. I also constructed this so that at
the end of the project I could look back and see if I had kept to the
I used subsystems to help me to break down the system. This helped me
to focus on a specific area of the solution at any one time.
These subsystems were combined and tested. The Test Results were
recorded and then evaluated against the Design Specification.
Finally, this document supports three Appendices: Appendix A shows the
resources I used to carry out this project. Appendix B contains some
extra research that I did for future features of the game. Lastly,
Appendix C contains some digital pictures of the mechanisms and
2 design problem
The manager of a local supermarket has no promotion for the latest
chocolate bar from Cadburys "Mye". He wishes to have a promotional
display at the entrance to his supermarket, to advertise this new bar.
The display must be interactive to the customer therefore it attracts
them to buy the new chocolate bar.
Unwind your Mind with Cadbury Mye...
My solution to the problem is to provide an interactive game, which
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winning customer. The game is to attract mainly teenagers.
Figure 3.1: Project Plan
Need & Brief
4 design ideas
4.1 Design Idea 1
This shows my first idea, which uses a wedge-shaped playing surface,
where the holes become progressively smaller and are worth more points
as you go further up the playing surface. The advertisement and
scoreboard are located at the top of the playing surface. There is
also a ball rack where the balls return.
4.2 Design Idea 2
This shows my second idea, which is based on a basketball theme, where
the player attempts to score by throwing the ball in the holes
provided where the smaller holes score more points than the larger
holes. The balls return via a sloped net to a ball rack at the bottom.
This game provides pressure on the player due to having a specific
time limit and that he/she needs a certain amount of points to win the
4.3 Design Idea 3
This shows my third idea, which is based on a curling theme, where the
player must slide the puck towards a target of concentric circles
where the smaller circles score more points than the larger ones. This
game provides pressure on the player due to having a specific time
limit and that he/she needs a certain amount of points to win the
game. There is also a ball rack where the balls return.
4.4 Design Idea 4
This shows my fourth idea, which is based on a pinball theme, where
the player deflects the ball around a barrier and into holes. The
player scores by the ball travel down one specific hole and not the
other hoax holes. When the player scores the promotional display
moves. There is also a ball rack where the balls return.
4.5 Analysis of Design Ideas
Design Idea 1 was not used as my Final Design because making a wedge
shape requires a large amount of wood therefore making the game heavy
to transport from supermarket to supermarket.
Design Idea 2 was discarded because the design would need a large
amount of space to set up and in a busy store, you would not want
basketballs bouncing everywhere.
Design 3 was not selected because there is no electronic means of
detecting the player scoring.
Design 4 was chosen because it would need only a small amount of space
to set up. The game would be lightweight and would attract customers
of the supermarket to play the game and the product due to the
promotional display moving. There is a risk to the playing balls being
small and colourful which may attract children to place them in their
mouths. I'm reducing this risk by having an assistant present and
having a warning notice placed on the game.
5 Task analysis
6 technical research
6.1 Block Process Diagram
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
* Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)
Text Box: MOVE THE PROMOTION Text Box: CONTROL THE MOTOR Text Box: DETECT THE BALL [IMAGE]
6.2 HOW TO DETECT THE BALL
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)
Flowchart: Direct Access Storage: LDR
The LDR belongs to a class of light detectors generally called
photocells; the LDR doesn't produce electricity from light. The
resistance levels of this component rise when in darkness and fall
when exposed to light.
This change in resistance can be used to switch the relay because,
when it is dark the resistance of the LDR increases, which means the
voltage across it increases therefore a transistor bias voltage (Vbe)
increases and the transistor can switch a relay coil.
Measuring the resistance of an LDR
Set up a multimeter to measure resistance on its 'ohms'. Connect an
LDR to a multimeter. Cover and uncover the front of the LDR to change
the amount of light reaching it, and note the resistance of the LDR
NOTE: the resistance is not proportional to the strength of the light
Microswitches are called 'micro' because a small force can operate
them. They are extremely versatile. They switch a very low current
normally in mA..
Types of Switches
Â· Button - Used where direct force applies the switch.
Â· Lever - Used to amplify a very small operating force.
Â· Roller - the roller allows the switch to be operated because of a
linear or reciprocating motion.
6.3 HOW TO CONTROL THE MOTOR
ICs are densely populated electronic circuits which are smaller, much
cheaper to make and much less likely to fail than circuits built from
Two types of ICs they are:
Â· CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic) = between 3 -
15 volts - starts generally with a "4"
Â· TTL(Transistor Transistor Logic) = up to 5 volts - TTL starts
generally with a "7"
The popular eight - pin (D.I.L) 555 Timer is a type of integrated
circuit (I.C) which is designed to work with capacitors and resistors
(in a C.R Circuit) to give a time delay.
The picture below shows the general appearance of the 555 in the
common 8 - pin DIL (dual in-line) package, together with the purposes
of its 8 terminal pins. Note that pin 1 identifies the pin nearest to
the small indentation.
It can be used as either an Astable or a Monostable. It works on any
D.C supply from 3 Volts to 15V.
The monostable is used as a 'pulse stretcher' to lengthen a short
pulse so that another circuit can be operated more reliably.
The time delay (the time that the output voltage is high) is produced
by a monostable can easily be changed by changing the values of R1
T = the time in seconds of the output pulse.
R = Resistor
C = Capacitor
T (seconds) â‰ˆ 1.1 X R1 X C1
If R1 is in Mâ„¦ and C1 in ÂµF. For example, if R = 1 Mâ„¦ and C = 10ÂµF
Then â‰ˆ 1.1 X 1 X 10 = 11 seconds
The astable circuit works automatically and does not require
triggering as with the monostable. It flips continuously between two
The 555 in the configuration can be called a pulse generator or
oscillator. The rate at
[IMAGE]which the device oscillates can be altered by adjusting the
values of the R1 and the C1. The frequency can be worked out by using
f = Frequency of the output pulse (Hz)
R = Resistor (Mâ„¦)
C = Capacitor (ÂµF)
f = 1.44 / (R1+2R2) X C1
A relay is a switch used to turn other circuits on or off. It is a
transducer, which changes an electrical signal to movement and then
back to an electrical signal. It is useful if you want:
1. a small current in one circuit to control another circuit
containing a device such as a lamp or electric motor which needs a
large current ( LIKE MY DESIGN)
2. Several different switch contacts to operate simultaneously.
The structure of a relay is shown above with its symbol; the contacts
may be normally open, closed or change - over. When the controlling
current flows through the coil (the soft iron armature.) This rocks
the pivot and operates the contacts in the circuit being controlled.
When the coil current stops, the armature is no longer attracted and
the contacts return their normal positions.
6.4 HOW TO MOVE THE PROMOTION
Electric motors change electrical energy into mechanical energy.
D.C ELECTRIC MOTORS
An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses
magnets to create motion. The fundamental law of all magnets:
Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with
their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one
magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the
north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and
similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these
attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
In the above diagram, you can see two magnets in the motor: The
armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a
permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well,
but in most small motors it is not in order to save power).
The cam and follower is a device, which can convert rotary movement
into linear movement. A cam is a specially shaped piece of material,
which fixes to a rotating shaft. The cam can have various shapes e.g.
Circle, Oval and Heart Shaped. A follower is a mechanism, which moves
up and down as it follows the edge of the cam.
Gears are used to convert rotary movement from one shaft to another.
Types of Gears
Â· Spur Gears - these have teeth, which mesh with one another. This is
called a gear train.
Â· Worm Gears - this looks like a screw thread and can be meshed with a
gear called a worm wheel, to provide a large speed reduction. It is
also turns the drive through 90o . The worm gear acts as the driver.
Â· Bevel Gears - These are used to turn the drive through 90 o . The
velocity of the gear train can be increased or decreased, in the same
way as the spur gears, by changing the relative sizes of the gears.
GEAR RATIO CALCULATIONS
1. The ratio between the DRIVER gear and the DRIVEN gear (the Gear
Ratio). This determines the Velocity Ratio.
Gear Ratio = number of teeth on the driven gear / Number of teeth on
the driver gear
Velocity Ratio = Driver Velocity (r.p.m) / Driven Velocity (r.p.m)
7 DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Use and Performance
1. The game must promote the new Cadbury's Mye Chocolate Bar.
2. It will be supported by a table and therefore played in a standing
3. It must be strong enough to be able to with stand constant playing.
4. The balls must be automatically returned to the player.
5. Eight balls must be able to be stored ready for playing.
6. It must have a losing hole and at least one winning hole.
Size and Weight
7. The console's depth should be no longer than 650mm.
8. Its height should be no longer than 500mm.
9. The console's width should be no wider than 500mm.
10. It should weigh no more than 12 Kg.
11. The promotional display should be seen from 2 metres away.
12. To attract the customer, the promotional display will move.
13. The display console must display:
'WARNING NOTICE: THE GAMING BALLS MUST NOT BE PUT IN YOUR MOUTH OR
14. The font size for the warning sign must be no smaller than 28
points, and all in uppercase letters.
15. The warning sign must be placed in a prominent position.
16. There must be an assistant when the game is in use.
17. There must be no sharp edges on the console and the display board.
18. Batteries must power the console.
19. The materials costs should not exceed Â£20.
20. The components of the console must be easily
21. The assistant must have easily removable panels, so that the
assistant can get any non-returning balls.
22. The game is to launch a new product and therefore the console must
last at least 3 hours of continuous play.
23. Wherever possible the console should not be made from natural wood
for recyclable purposes.
24. The product must be made for easy transportation.
E.g., No loose parts and component parts must be contained inside the
8 SYSTEM design
8.1 SYSTEM BREAKDOWN
The console is the main playing area of the game. There is a playing
surface which is slanted and there are two holes, a loser's hole and a
winning hole. The console returns the ball to the player after he has
attempted to score.
The controller is the powerhouse of the game because it uses a low
current on the input to switch a high current on the output. It also
provides a time delay for the display (below) to move for a specific
To detect when a ball has entered the winning hole it sends a signal
to the controller.
This is started by a signal given from the controller after the ball
sensor has been triggered. The display will move up and down to
attract customers to play the game and see the promotion.
8.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
8.3 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE GAME
8.4 DESIGN SKETCHES
As shown in the following sheets.
9 CONSOLE - SUB-system
The console consists of three surfaces: (highest to lowest)
Â· Playing Surface
Â· Ball Return Surface
Â· Ball Storage Rack
These need to be at different levels so that the balls return
automatically to the player, as shown in the design sketches.
I chose to draw the console orthographically to show the front
evaluation, side elevation section and plan view. It will also show
the principle dimensions and the cutting list below.
See the Orthographic Drawing of the Games Console below.
S.W Engineering LTD SW - 100 - DRAFT A
Name of Part
No Off per Assembly
Ball Return Surface
Ball Storage Rack
Ball Rack Guard
CAM ( Eccentric)
CAM Follower Support
Gear Box Mounting Plate
Promotional Display Board
9.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
1. All the MDF panels were cut-out using a Band saw (to the specific
sizes as shown on the Cutting List above) except the CAM, which I cut
out using a copping saw.
2. These were assembled using 'butt joints' and wood screws, apart
from the back plate, playing surface, ball return surface and ball
return rack. I took care to pilot drill the wood to avoid splitting
whilst screwing the wood together.
3. The surfaces described above were fitted to the correct level by
placing Lego Â® bricks underneath them so that I could get the ball
rolling to a specific corner.
4. I then drilled the winning hole with a pillar drill and I cut out
the losing hole with the Band saw.
5. When the level was correct, I marked around the surface at then
fixed it to the wood with pre-drilled plastic blocks.
6. Finally, I removed all the sharp edges by sanding them down with
To test the console the following must happen:
1. The ball must be able to roll into the winning hole and return to
2. The ball must be able to roll into the losing hole and return to
3. The ball must be able to bounce off the boundaries of the console.
10 CONTROLLER - SUB-system
Figure 10.1 shows the Block diagram, for the controller unit.
Text Box: Monostable Text Box: Micro switch Sensor Text Box: Electric Motor
Text Box: Relay Driver
Figure 10.1: Block Diagram for Controller Sub-system
Figure 10.2 shows the circuit diagram for the game controller. It has
the following features:
Â· I wanted the motor to run between 5 - 15seconds.
T (s) â‰ˆ 1.1 C1(F) x R1(â„¦)
T â‰ˆ 1.1 x 1000(ÂµF) x 10 -6 x10(kâ„¦) X 10 3
â‰ˆ 1.1 x 10
â‰ˆ 11 seconds
Therefore, the values of components I needed were as follows a 1000ÂµF
Capacitor and a 10Kâ„¦ Resistor. This in theory would turn the motor on
for 11 seconds, as calculated above. By using a variable resistor and
not a fixed resistor, I made this time delay variable.
Â· A diode was placed across the relay coil to stop back EMF damaging
the transistor circuit.
10.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
10.2.1 METHOD OF PRODUCING THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB)
Produce a mask
I drew the mask design on the software package called 'PCB Wizard
'then printed it off and then photocopied this onto a piece of
Expose the board
I then placed the mask design on top of the PCB and exposed the PCB
material to the Ultra Violet (UV) light for about 2 minutes.
Develop the Board
I placed the PCB into a tray and poured photo resist solution on top
of it. The protective layer that was exposed to the light came away. I
then rinse of the PCB and dried it with a paper towel.
Etch the Board
Now I etched the board into Iron (iii) Chloride. This process took
around an hour. The copper that was exposed had dissolved.
Clean and Drill
Then I dried the PCB it got some wire wool to clean the track. Then I
used a PCB drill to drill out the holes, now the PCB I ready to
The Method of Soldering
1. When soldering it is important to heat both the track and the
component at the same time, so they become warm.
2. Hold the soldering iron in place for a count of three, then use
some solder wire and allow a small amount to melt onto the track.
3. Remove the solder wire.
4. My joint should look like a small volcano. If I did not get both
the track and component warm enough, a dry joint could occur.
5. Some components, such as transistors, are sensitive to heat. I used
a crocodile clip as a heat sink, to remove the heat so the component
is not damaged during soldering
10.2.2 METHOD OF FITTING AND TESTING THE PCB COMPONENTS
Figure 10.3 shows the Track Pattern and Component Layout for PCB.
The circuit board was built and tested in parts as described below:
NOTE: I used a circuit clamp to hold the PCB in place whilst I
soldered the components in. "This was found to be extremely helpful."
1. Firstly, I worked out the pin configuration for the relay (RL1) by
using a battery and a multimeter. Then I soldered this to the circuit.
2. Next, I used a website (shown in Appendix B) to find the pin
configuration for the transistor (TR1)and then I used a crocodile clip
as a heat sink, to remove the heat so the component was not damaged
3. I soldered the diode in the circuit before testing the relay with
the transistor. I did this to stop and back EMF damage.
4. Then I soldered the current limiting resistor (R2) to the base of
the transistor. I tested that the transistor switched by applying a
voltage to the current limiting resistor so that the transistor would
saturate and switch. When this happened, the collector current would
flow and the relay switched.
5. When I saw that the transistor and relay where switching I decided
to solder a temporary motor circuit. I did this to see if the relay
contacts would turn the motor on.
6. I then soldered the 8-pin dual inline socket holder. I made sure
that the indent in the holder was where I needed to place pin 1.
7. Next, I soldered in the Electrolytic Capacitor (C1), Resistor (R1),
Push to Break Switch (PTB) and Variable Resistor (VR1) in the circuit.
I placed the 555 timer in carefully so that the pins did not break.
8. When I tested the overall circuit, nothing happened, this was
because pin 2 and pin 3
(Output) on the 555 Timer were not connected to anything. Therefore,
modifications were needed as described below.
9. When the PCB modifications were completed, I tested the overall
circuit but I found that the motor was on constantly and when you
pushed the switch, it turned off. I needed it the other way round so I
soldered the switch to be a 'push to break' not a 'push to make.'
10.3 PCB MODIFACTIONS
When the circuit did not work, two modifications needed to be made:
1. The current limiting resistor (R2) needed to go to Pin 3 and not
Pin 2. This was achieved by drilling another hole in the Glass Fibre
Resin so that the resistor could be soldered directly.
2. A 'patch wire' was needed to connect Pin 2 of the 555 Timer to the
top of the resistor (R1)
The testing of the controller was built-up in parts, as described
11 BALL SENSOR - SUB-system
I thought that this sub-system would be difficult to construct, so I
decided to make a prototype of this using MECCANO Â®. My Ideas for the
prototype are listed below:
1. Mount a pressure pad underneath the winning hole so that the ball
would just drop onto the pad.
2. Mount a micro switch inside a tube so that the ball would push
against the tube and micro switch.
I decided to go with the micro switch option (2) because if I used a
pressure pad it would get in the way of the rolling balls and it could
cause ball bounce.
To protect the micro switch I used a pivotal guard as shown in the
11.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
1. A 28mm diameter copper tube was used to guide the ball passed the
pivotal guard, it
was clamped there using 'Terry Clips '. These clips were used so that
the tube height could be easily adjusted.
2. The pivotal guard was made from a pre-drilled plastic block.
3. The Meccano Â® construction needed the micro switch position to be
To test the Ball Sensor the following must happen:
1. The ball must travel down the tube and apply pressure to the micro
switch to make it operate.
12 PROMOTIONAL DISPLAY - sub-system
I thought that this sub-system would be difficult to construct, so I
decided to make a prototype of this using MECCANO Â®. My Ideas for the
prototype are listed below:
1. Flags waving using levers
2. Eyes rotating using a rotating disk
3. A promotional display board that moves.
I decide go with the moving promotional display board because it best
met my specification, that is to attract customers to the product and
to play the game.
The main design problem was that the motor rotated extremely fast, but
I wanted the promotional display board to move slowly.
To solve this problem I decide upon using a gear train to drive an
eccentric cam. My MECCANO Â® set provided a number of gear options to
choose. I decided to use a worm gear for the driver gear and a worm
wheel as the driven gear. This provided me with a gear reduction ratio
This solution is shown in the design sketches.
12.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
1. I mounted a DC motor, worm driver and worm wheel onto a MECCANO Â®
2. I then made a concentric cam out of MDF but mounted it
eccentrically onto the eight hole-mounting wheel.
3. The cam follower made from an old brass thermostat, this was ideal
because it was lightweight.
4. A plastic cap was found, bored out (using a hand drill) and fitted
to the end of the follower for a smooth contact with the cam.
5. A tube was fitted to the back of the display board so that it is
easily removable for transportation of the console.
To test the Promotional Display the following must happen:
1. Using a temporary test circuit to driver the DC motor, the cam
should rotate through the gear train.
2. When the gearbox is mounted in the console, with the CAM follower
in place, the display should move up and down in a clean action.
13 System Test and evaluation
13.1 SYSTEM TEST RESULTS
The Promotional Game system tests were as follows:
1. Did the winning balls trigger the display and return to the player
every time? o **
2. Did the loosing balls return to the player every time? o **
3. Did the product meet the design specification? o
Not Specific Enough
Not tested for this amount of time
4. Did the product support a team game? o
Score out of 5 balls
** - The balls did return every time but on some very rare occasions
it did not and needed some assistance to return them.
The purpose of this GCSE D&T project was to design and make a
promotional game to promote the new Cadbury's Mye Chocolate Bar. A
'prototype' was built to find the design and manufacturing problems.
From the design brief, I produced four initial ideas, which are
described in Section 4. The reasons and decisions for the final
selection are described in Section 4.5.
Research was carried out so that I would understand what components,
equipment, materials and tools I could use. Appendix A shows my
resources that I used to carry out my research. The most helpful were
the books from the library and the Internet because they gave me a
detailed knowledge and understanding of how to produce circuits.
After I carried out my research I produced a Design Specification,
this showed me the things about the design that are fixed and defined
the things, which I was free to change. This provided me with a
boundary for the system that I had to keep within. I also produced
this so that at the end of the project my game could to be tested to
see how closely I have followed my specification.
Section 8 shows the overall system and breakdown into the subsystems:
Console, Controller, Ball Sensor and the Promotional Display. It shows
a block diagram of the Inputs, Process and Outputs of the overall
system. A flow diagram was added to show the gaming logic.
Section 9 is the production of the console. MDF was used as the
material for construction because it supports the recovery and
recycling of sawdust. This was the most safety conscious part of the
project because when I cut the MDF it created very fine dust,
therefore I wore a facemask and goggles. Marking out the levels for
the playing and ball return surfaces were difficult because they
needed to be tested before fixing , so I used LEGOÂ® bricks as
supports. These were extremely useful because it was easy to increase
or decrease the heights to get the ball to travel in the right
Section 10 is the construction of the controller; where I learnt the
most. The following list gives the lessons learnt:
1. I learnt to check the resistance of a circuit before applying a
voltage. For example, when I was looking for the relay pin
configuration I accidentally put the battery across the push to break
contacts and therefore shorted my battery.
2. It was a surprise that Pin 2 on the 555 Timer needed to be kept
high, and it is only when it drops, that Pin 3 goes high and drives
the transistor base. This meant that the micro switch needed to be a
Push to break not a Push to Make.
3. I found that holding the PCB in a clamp whilst I soldered the
components into it was extremely helpful.
4. I learnt that I needed to make sure that the circuit diagram was
correct before re-drawing it in 'PCB Wizard'. As this meant
modifications where necessary, see section 10.3 for details.
5. It was helpful to build and test the circuit in sections because it
made me focus on a particular component or sets of components working
6. I learnt that the trigger pulse did not need to be cleaned, it
triggered on the negative edge not the positive from the micro switch.
However, if I needed to clean the pulse I would of used a Schmitt
Trigger or a 4001 IC ( from my RadioShack Â® Electronics Learning Lab).
Section 11 is the building of the Ball Sensor; this was the most
challenging part of the game and therefore needed to be modelled using
MECCANO Â®. The model made was used in my final product. It was
challenging because a tube needed to some how be supported, there
needed to be protection for the micro switch and it needed to be
adjustable and all of this in a height of 2 inches. The lesson learnt
was to have used a non-mechanical detector (ideas for this in the
Section 12 is the construction of the Promotional Display: this turned
out to be a lot easier than I first anticipated. It was easy because I
again used MECCANO Â® gears and motor options to produce the gearbox.
The lessons learnt were that the worm drive solution was an excellent
method for reducing the speed of the motor. I used brass as my CAM
follower and Foamex as the display board because they were both
lightweight and easily available.
Section 13 is the System Test and Evaluation section it combines all
four subsystems. It is needed to show that the subsystems work
together and that the final product meets the Design Specification.
The lesson learnt here was that the individual testing of each
subsystem gave a higher success rate when the system was combined. The
overall system worked well and was reliable; however, on very few
occasions the ball became stuck, but was easily freed. The other
lesson learnt was that it was impossible for me to calculate the life
expectancy without actually running the game for that amount of time.
Therefore, I learnt that on the Design Specification you need to be
specific otherwise, you cannot prove you have met the requirements.
The following Section 'Evaluation' looks at aspects of the design
which I would improve and some future features of the Promotional
This project met the design objectives, but improvements could have
1. The cam follower of the games console is vulnerable during
transportation and therefore has to be removed to avoid damage. This
could be improved by designing the console around the product.
2. An LED could have been used to show whether the circuit is switched
on, as you are unable to see this when the back panel is in place.
3. The back panel could have been hinged so that the assistant could
switch the circuit on or off more easily.
4. Holes could have been drilled into the PCB Controller Board so that
the wires could have been looped through. This would have stopped the
strain on the solder joints, when the wires were moved.
5. The design of the ball sensor was a mechanical solution to the
problem. This solution would be subject to wear and vibration. A
better solution would have been to use a light beam with a Light
Dependent Resistor (LDR). This would have made it more reliable, no
moving parts and therefore would be low maintenance, easier and
cheaper to manufacture.
6. The Foamex solution for the Display Board was discarded because it
was too heavy for the gearbox to move. The design was modified to use
a Mye Chocolate Box instead of the Foamex, because this was light and
more aesthetic to the customer.
If I had more time, I would have enhanced the game by doing the
1. Using the ball sensor to also trigger a pulse counter, this would
drive a 7-segment display through a BCD decoder driver as shown in
2. To give more visual effect to the player when he wins and to
attract other customers, I would have added a light chaser. I found
the circuit for this in my Radioshack Â® Electronics Learning Lab
Workbook, as shown in Appendix B.
Overall, the game proved to be reliable during games played with my
friends and family, but an automatic scoring mechanism would add to
the enjoyment of the game, instead of using a score sheet.
16 appendix a - resources
Â· Basic Skills Electronics, by Tom Duncan, ISBN 0-7195-4449-1
Â· Electronics for Today and Tomorrow, by Tom Duncan, ISBN
Â· GCSE Technology Electronics, by Rich & Edwards, ISBN 0-7487-0153-2
Electronics Learning Lab Workbooks I and II
Junior Construction Kit 1315
98-100 Kingston Road, Portsmouth PO2 7PA
Autojet Technologies Ltd. (Work Experience March 2003)
17 appendix b - EXTRA research
The following sheets show my initial research for the game's future
1. Score Counterusing a Pulse Counter (Flip-Flop) and 7-segment
2. Light Chaserusing a circuit from my Digital Logic Projects Workbook
18 appendix c - DIGITAL PICTURES
As shown in the following sheets.