The Peroxides Investigation

The Peroxides Investigation

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The Peroxides Investigation


Introduction

Peroxides is the incorrect name for this enzyme the correct term is
catalase. It catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. It is
present in all body cells especially LIVER cells which are very
active.

catalase

[IMAGE]Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen

catalase

[IMAGE]2h2O2 2h2O+O2

Enzymes are biological catalysts and a catalyst is a substance that
speeds up the rate of reaction during the reaction it gets changed
e.g. If we did not have enzymes we would die because we would not be
able to digest the food that we need for proteins and so on.

Enzymes get used over and over again, so the body only has a small
amount. The reaction can only take place because of the lock and key
action the enzymes have a specific shape of the for the thing that it
is braking down e.g. there is an active site and if they don't fit
together correctly then the enzyme can not do its job to brake down
the substance. But the enzymes can be useless when they are denatured
this happens when their active site is changed around the 40-50°c. PH
can also cause denature of the enzymes, most work at neutral PH, So
extreme acidic or alkaline PH will denature them, a good example of
this reaction is Peroxidase. When this happens they become useless to
the body. There are a lot of certain enzymes for the right job, as you
will see in the prediction section. There is three parts the enzyme
and a part a and b they join together at the active site the molecules
of substances combine with the enzyme for a short time. Then the
enzyme frees to take part in another reaction. There has now been a
new substance made a and b was joined together



AIM
===

To investigate how varying PH affects the activity of the peroxidase
enzyme.


WHAT WILL BE MEASURED TO FIND THIS OUT?
---------------------------------------

The volume of oxygen (0 ) collected in the top of the measuring

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cylinder this will be measured in (mm's ).

WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT EACH TIME?

Each time the test is done the PH will change going from PH 3-PH 11.to
see which will be the best PH for enzyme to work at. Using
hydrochloric and acetic acids, water sodium carbonate and sodium
hydroxide solutions.

WHAT WILL BE THE SAME EACH TIME?

Each time the test is done the things that will stay the same will be;

·The volume of PH solution

·Volume of peroxides

·volume of liver

·The same size measuring cylinder will be used each time

·The water in the measuring cylinder will be to the top of it each
Test

·The time the oxygen was collected

·The same volume of;

Hydrochloric acid

Acetic acid

Water

Sodium carbonate

Sodium hydroxide

HOW MANY MEASURMENTS WILL BE TAKEN?

The amount of measurements taken will be 15,because there is 5
different PH's and I will do them 3 times each so that the results are
reliable and accurate. Then they will be averaged.

Safety

Acids, Alkalis and hydrogen can damage eyesight and irritate skin so
goggles will be worn and any splashes on skin will be washed of
quickly.


Apparatus list
--------------

·Bowl

·Beehive

·Measuring cylinder

·Tube with a bung on one end

·Small bottle cap

·Conical flask

·Safety goggles

·Stop watch.


Prediction
----------

I predict that the PH7 will work the best because it is neutral and
this enzyme works best at PH7 the same shape as the. I also think that
the graph will be a parabolic shaped graph with 7 being the best in
the middle.


Method
------

· Collect apparatus and put on the bench,

·Fill the bowl full of water,

·Put the beehive in the bottom of the bowl,

·Fill the measuring cylinder up with water then put it upside down on
top of the hive with out spilling the water out,

·Push the tube up though the bee hive and put in to the measuring
cylinder,

·Put the liver in the bottom of the beaker,

Put 20ml's of the PH solution in (PH3= hydrogen acid, PH5= acetic
acid, PH7=water, PH9= sodium carbonate, PH11= sodium hydroxide) but
only one per experiment,

·Put 20ml's of hydrogen peroxide in the same beaker,

·Quickly put the bung in the top of the beaker mix and leave to act
for five minutes collect the oxygen in the measuring cylinder,

·Take the tube out of the gas collector,

·Measure the volume of O2 at the top of the collector using mm3,

·Do those two times for each PH to improve the accuracy of the
results.


Results
-------

PH

Ph3 hydrochloric acid

Ph5 acetic acid

Ph7 water

Ph9 sodium carbonate

Ph 11 sodium hydroxide

Result

10

45

91

116

18

7

90

122

101

18

8

91

123

100

17

Average


Conclusion
----------

As I predicted in the prediction water PH7 was as being neutral it did
not denature and inactivate the enzyme, the other PH'S did denature by
some amount.


Evaluation
----------

The results are as reliable as I can get them, I know this because I
have done three tests on each of the five different PH's, and I have
given them all an average. I predicted that the PH7 would work the
best because it is neutral. I also know that the results are correct
because I got some anomalies results but the second time I tried them
they all looked reasonably similar and they had the same pattern.

There are a few things that went wrong during the experiment such as
when you had put the liver in and the PH in then when you added the
Hydrogen peroxide, you could not get the bung in quick enough because
a lot of gas escapes out of the conical flask, so I thought of a way
of solving the problem. Also the liver had a few lumps in so it might
not worked as well because the liver can not get broken down as quick
when it is in big lumps because it decreases the surface area so if
the liver was liquidised longer then it would not be as lumpy.
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