An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Period of a Pendulum

An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Period of a Pendulum

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An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Period of a Pendulum

I could investigate the following factors:

* Angle of displacement

* Length of string

* Pendulum weight

I am going to investigate and see if varying the length of string will
affect the period of the pendulum.

My prediction is: The longer the string the longer the period. The
period will be longer as the pendulum has farther to travel. My theory
is demonstrated below.

Pendulum A has a shorter string. This gives it a shorter period.
Pendulum B has a longer string and has a much larger period as it has
farther to travel to get from X to Y to X which is one period.

[IMAGE]


I made my prediction based on a previous experiment I have done. The
length affected the period as stated above and I think this will
happen again in this experiment. I looked at a clock with a pendulum
to see how it worked. I found that to change the speed of a second you
adjust the length of the pole which the pendulum hangs from, so I also
based my prediction on that as it is the same principle.

I set up a trial experiment to test out the following:

* Which angle of displacement to use (e.g. 90°)

* How many readings to take

* Which lengths of string to measure (e.g. every 10cm)

* Where to carry out the experiment (on a desk/floor etc..)

To ensure the test is fair I am going to:

* Use the same piece of string

* Use the same weight pendulum (preferably the exact same pendulum)

* Make sure the string is measured accurately

To ensure the test is safe I am going to:

* Use a sensible angle of displacement

* Not to swing the pendulum near others

To ensure the test is accurate I am going to:

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* Run the experiment 3 times and take an average

* The time for one oscillation is very small so I have decided to
measure 10 oscillations then divide the result by 10 so I obtain a
more accurate set of results.

* Double check all measurements of string

* Use the same angle of displacement (amplitude)

In my experiment I used the above ways to keep the test fair and
accurate. I also did the experiment 3 times and so I could take an
average. This made my results more accurate and fair.

Results:

While accurately conducting my experiment I recorded this set of
results.

Table of results

[IMAGE]


Length of pendulum (cm)

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

experiment 3

Average

10

7.99

8.07

7.93

7.99

20

11.36

10.96

10.99

11.1

30

12.58

13.27

13.1

12.98

40

14.57

14.58

14.81

14.63

50

16.66

16.67

16.84

16.72

60

17.45

17.45

17.61

17.5

70

18.97

19.02

18.83

18.94

Graph of results

[IMAGE]

1000

20

3000

[IMAGE]

My graph clearly shows a pattern in my results. It shows a positive
correlation and that the longer the string the longer the oscillation.
This proves that my original prediction was correct. The pendulum
takes longer to oscillate if the string is longer and it takes a
shorter amount of time to oscillate if the string is shorter.

Evaluation

I think that the experiment went very well as we had no problems
conducting it. Our observations were quite accurate but probably could
have been more accurate if we had a computer to measure the time
exactly. We designed the experiment carefully bit I would change a few
things.

* The type of string used. As we got farther into our experiment the
string started to fray so it would have been better to use a
stronger type of string.

* Where we hung the pendulum. I would change this because sometimes
the pendulum hit the table and clamp stand whilst swinging so
ideally we would have liked to hang it from the ceiling or hook.

I also think I have enough evidence to support my conclusion as all
our results showed the same relationship between length of string and
I also referred to the clock mechanism in my prediction so I think I
have enough evidence to support my conclusion.

I could also perform more experiments to research the pendulum more.
By changing the weight of the pendulum or even changing the angle of
displacement. Doing this would give me a wider knowledge of why the
pendulums oscillations vary
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