Rates Of Reaction Investigation

Rates Of Reaction Investigation

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Rates Of Reaction Investigation

Aim: The aim of this investigation is to investigate the rate of
reaction between sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloride acid

Reaction: The reaction we are studying is the affect of concentration
on the rate of reaction. We will change the concentration of the
Sodium thiosulphate by diluting it with water.

[IMAGE]Equation: Sodium thiosulphate +Hydrochloric acid Sulphur
Dioxide + Sulphur + sodium chloride + Water

[IMAGE]Na2s2o3 + 2Hcl So2 + S + 2nacl + H2o

Process: When the hydrochloric acid is added to the sodium
thiosulphate, precipitate is formed, which makes the reactants go
opaque, some gasses are produced and some water is produced also.

Rate Of Reaction: The rate of a Reaction is the measure of product
made per second. The rate of reaction can be measured by the recording
the times of the reaction, and dividing one by their average time. The
results one obtains can be used in a graph to show a clear display of
one's results.

How: For a reaction to occur the molecules of the reactants have to
collide with each other with enough energy for the reaction to take
place. For this to happen the bonds of the reactant molecules need to
be broken so they can collide and create new bonds with each other and
create the product.

Factors: There are four factors that can affect the rate of a chemical
reaction, temperature, concentration, surface area and the use of a
catalyst.

Increasing the temperature will cause the particles top move faster,
with more energy. They will therefore collide more often and with
greater energy. This means there will be more successful collisions
per second so the reaction will have a faster rate.

Increasing the concentration of a reactant simply means there are more
particles in the same volume, which may collide and so react with the
other reactant. That means a faster rate of reaction.

If a reactant has a large surface area then there will be a larger
area of a reactant being exposed and available for collision with the

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other reactant, which means a faster rate of reaction. The use of a
catalyst means the amount of activation energy needed to break
existing bonds is lowered so particles with a moderate amount of
energy can collide successfully, so the rate will be faster.

Factor change: The factor we will be investigating will be
concentration. We will change the concentration of the sodium
thiosulphate with water; we will do this to see the affect of
concentration on the rate of reaction.

We will control the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate by adding
2cm3 of water and subtracting 2cm3 of Sodium thiosulphate every time
we do the experiment.

Other Factors: The other factors, temperature, surface area, and
catalysts are not being studied in this experiment. We need to control
the temperature of the acid, water and sodium thiosulphate so that it
is the same every time. We can't how ever control the temperature of
the area that we were working in this is because we had to work with
the windows open to increase safety so no one inhaled any dangerous
gasses. We couldn't work with Surface area because we were working
with liquids.

[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]Prediction: I predict that the more concentrated
the solution is, the more molecules there will be in the same area so
there will be more chance of a successful collision so the rate of the
reaction will be fast. This can be shown here. When we double the
concentration the rate of reaction will be doubled. This is because
there are more particles in the same area so there will be more
chances of successful collisions. So if you halve the time of the
reaction, then you have doubled the rate of reaction.

Sodium thiosulphate

Hydrochloric Acid

Water


Un-concentrated

[IMAGE]

Concentrated



[IMAGE]Preliminary Method: The method that we used for the last
experiment was to measure out the correct amounts of acid (5cm3),
Sodium Thiosulphate (1-20cm3) and distilled water (0-19cm3). We
changed the amounts of water and sodium thiosulphate each time, making
sure it still came to 20cm3 in total i.e. 20cm3+0cm3, 18cm3+2cm3 etc…
We put all the reactants into a conical flask that was on a piece of
paper with a black cross on it. We timed the reaction until the cross
could no longer be seen. I will use this same method again.
======================================================================

Apparatus


We used the conical flask because it has a narrow top so it releases
less toxic sulphur dioxide gasses. We used the measuring cylinder
because it is a good way to measure the liquid. We used a stopwatch
because it is an efficient way to measure the time of the reaction.

Step by Step: the first step would be to put goggles on so as not to
get harmful substances in our eyes thus damaging them. The second step
would be to measure out your reactants, using a measuring cylinder for
the hydrochloric acid and the water and a burette for measuring out
the Sodium thiosulphate. Third step I to put the reactants together in
a conical flask, and to start timing. When the liquid has turned
opaque stop timing. You can tell weather the liquid is opaque by using
a black cross underneath the conical flask. The fourth step is to
record your results and pour the solution of reactants down the sink.

To make it safe open doors and windows for ventilation. When we've
finished with the solution we'll pour them away as soon as the
reaction has finished. This will prevent staining of the conical
flask. We will wear goggles because the reactants we are using are
corrosive.

We will make it a fair test by using the same conical flask,
stopwatch, measuring cylinder and cross every time this is because
each one may have a slight difference that could affect our results in
some way. We will also have the same person watching the liquid and
the same person timing the reaction. This is because different people
will judge things differently and will have different reaction times.

I will repeat the experiment 4 times to make sure we acquire
definitive results that fully show the accuracy or inaccuracy of our
results.

Table of concentration and analysis

Concentration

Of sodium thiosulphate (g/dm3)

Volume Of sodium thiosulphate (cm3)

Volume of water (cm3)

Volume of

Acid (cm3)

Total liquid volume (cm3)

40

20

0

5

25

36

18

2

5

25

32

16

4

5

25

28

14

6

5

25

24

12

8

5

25

20

10

10

5

25

Conclusion: Having carried out the experiment and plotted my results
into a table and a graph I can see that the more concentrated the
solution of sodium thiosulphate and acid is, the faster the rate of
reaction will be. This is because when a solution is more concentrated
there are more particles in the same area as before. Meaning
collisions between particles are more likely. This will increase the
amount of successful collisions per second causing the reaction to
speed up.

Patterns: looking at our averages I can see that the higher the
concentration is the faster the rate of reaction will be. This is due
to a higher amount of successful collisions per second caused by more
particles in the same area.

Prediction: The results I have gathered proves my prediction correct
that the higher the concentration is the faster the rate of reaction
will be.

Accuracy: The accuracy of our results can be shown by the averages
that we gathered. Our averages results go in order consecutively
except one anomalous result, which was the concentration of 30. This
may be anomalous because of a change in chemicals or apparatus.

Also we can see if the results are accurate by seeing if the repeats
are within 10% of the average. This is the case with all our repeats.
All of them are within 10% of the average.

Evaluation: When we did the experiment some of the problems we may
have encounted could have been the room temperature changing due to a
lack of control over the temperatures out side, which would have
affected room temperature because we had to have the windows open for
ventilation. We used a different source of sodium thiosulphate because
the one that we were originally using became extinguished. This could
have affected our results because the two sources of sodium
thiosulphate my have had different concentrations. We had to have
different people timing because our original timer was absent on the
second day of testing.

If I were to do the experiment again I would use a different way to
check the cross. I would use a light sensor, which a much more
accurate way to see if the solution has turned opaque. I would also
use a second burette to measure out the acid. This would have meant
that our measurements of acid would be much more accurate meaning our
results would be more accurate also.
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