The Central Business District of Kidderminster

The Central Business District of Kidderminster

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The Central Business District of Kidderminster


Introduction
============

For my GCSE fieldwork we were required to visit the central Business
District (CBD for short) of a town or a city. The town that I will
investigate is called Kidderminster, and is located in Central
England, near the Wyre Forest District in the countryside of
Worcestershire on the Stour River. Kidderminster is just 19 miles
south of Birmingham. It has a very industrial history and is known as
the origin of the Carpet Industry. The carpet manufacturing industry
was established in 1735. The population of the town is 54,644, which
were recorded last in 1991.

Text Box:

Kidderminster is located due north of Worcestershire

[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

Text Box:


Text Box: As we zoom in, we can see that Kidderminster is a fairly large town, with the A442, A449 and the A456 travelling towards it.

[IMAGE]


Aim
---

My aim is to find out if the number of pedestrians increases in number
when moving towards the CBD. Also another aim is that I will find out
if Kidderminster has the same features as a CBD.


Predictions

I have made some predictions to accompany my aim.

1. The closer you get to the CBD, the more shops there are present.

2. As you get closer to the CBD, the population density will
increase.

3. The Shop and Environmental quality will increase, as you get
closer to the CBD.

4. The frontages will become smaller as you get closer to the CBD.

5. There will be an increase in specialist shops as distance is
shortened towards the CBD.

6. As the houses near the CBD, they will become more nucleated.

I believe in these hypothesizes because of many geographical factors
present, which apply to most towns in MEDC's.

I also believe that this is the case as when you move further away

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from the CBD there are less shops and businesses for the people to
shop at for their leisure.

A CBD also consists of large variety of shops including department
stores. These shops sell products of high quality and the fact that
the shops are paced closely together adding competition for customers,
the shops will use different tactics as Sales, special offers and
Discounts, which in turn will attract more people. Shops that are
located in the CBD usually are specialist shops, department stores and
branches of national chains of companies.

A CBD also comprises of offices. This also adds to the number of
people located in the CBD because of their jobs in the banks, building
societies, company headquarters, insurance companies, solicitors and
government offices. These offices are often occupied in high-rise
offices blocks or in the upper floors of a shop or building. This is
another factor in the number of people located in the CBD. As most
shops close at night the number of people must surely decrease in the
CBD.

The CBD also contains public services and culture and entertainment.
These may include theatre, clubs, bars and restaurants. This will also
result in less people being away from the CBD. Also, the environmental
quality of the CBD is far better than further away from it, I have
witnessed this when visiting Kidderminster.

[IMAGE]

The Burgess model shows that around the CBD you would expect to see
factories and industry around the CBD. You can see that
factory/industry is located just outside the CBD, and this is where
most of the carpet industry started developing. For this reason, the
government created a nucleated condition, so they could fit more
people into the little space they had. So houses here should be in
terraced conditions. From the industrial history of the area I can see
that the low class residential will exist very close to the CBD. Find
factories and industry. This is where I would expect to find the
carpet industry located, as Kidderminster is famous for it. The low
class residential would be people living in terraced houses, which are
next to the factories and industry. I would expect this investigation
to be starting off in the low class residential zone as it is starting
near to the CBD.

From this model I can predict that as you go out of the CBD the land
use will change from Factories to a low class residential area, which
has old houses. As you go further out the land middle class and
high-class houses would take up use.

Also that the high class houses would be bigger and as you go inwards
you would expect the house sizes to go down since it goes to lower
class so I would expect that as you go further in towards the CBD the
frontages will get smaller.

[IMAGE]

This model suggests that there should also be a lot of middle-classed
housing. These are semi-detached houses. These could be because of the
amount of renewal that went on after the war. We should be able to see
low-class housing and also light wholesale manufacturing at these
points. Average newsagents can appear as well as a few eateries;
however the most specialist shops are not available here. It is a more
modern model of a town or city, which was designed because he thought
that transportation links towards the CBD split up the different
sections.

The CBD itself has a whole host of work opportunities such an offices,
shops and restaurants. Also, there would be a great number of tall
buildings because the land in the CBD is very expensive so people have
smaller bases and build upwards. Because of high land values, there
would be few houses in the CBD, as people could not afford them.
Because more money is spent in a main area of Kidderminster, the
environmental quality of the CBD is a lot higher than the Inner city,
which was made mostly for employees in the industrial revolution. So
"As you get closer to the CBD, there will be a greater amount of
pedestrians"

From this model I can also predict that if you walk directly towards
the CBD there will be one type of land use unless there are low class
houses then factories.

Methodology

The field trip took place on Thursday 2nd October 2003 we travelled to
Kidderminster.

I was assigned to the East Transect, which is located on the map
attached. I firstly had to start off at Lea Street, which is a
residential area that is situated South of the Northern Transect. We
started in the inner suburbs because I needed to see the changes
between the core of the CBD and the area outside the CBD.

We firstly had to describe the types of buildings that were situated
there. This was at every transect route we had to stop at each survey
point and gives scores for the environmental quality. The score was
from a scale of 0 to 5, 0 as being no shops and 5 being dominated or
mainly shops. This was from survey point A to C. Also, we had to
measure the frontages of each building at each survey point. Frontage
means the front part of a building, facing the street.

On Lea Street, my partner and me Manbir worked on one side of the
road, and the other half of the group worked on the right side of the
road. While working on one side of the road, we filled in the URBAN
TRANSECT FIELD SHEET. This sheet included the following information:

· Land Use Classification: - This was a sheet, which was provided in
my fieldwork data booklet, which is attached. Each land use was what
kind of service, shops and others were used in the area e.g.

A- Department/ Variety stores/ Major chain stores

B- Supermarkets etc

· Building Name: - If the building did not have a name, which in some
cases, houses on Lea Street did not have. The door number was filled
in replace.

· Type of Building: - This is obviously the type of building in which
was analysed on the street. Most of this column was mainly terraced
housing.

· Frontages: -This is the number of paces that I have described
before.

The last three columns were used to fill in any additional comments
such as the number of storeys, and the land use of upper storeys.

I commented on whether each house had double glazing, because that was
common within the street, and I also commented on whether the houses
had villa or bay windows, also the amount of storeys was also used.
This sheet is attached overleaf.

There was also one more column to add any additional comments about
each building along side Lea Street and round the corner onto
Comberton Hill. There was a change of land use there, because it was a
change from a residential area to shops and a range of supermarkets
and other services.

I predict that as you move towards the centre of the CBD, the average
size of frontages will increase because there will be huge chain
stores and department stores as you go towards the CBD.

The Frontages was measured in the amount of paces, at each of the ten
surveys, I had to measure by pacing out the frontage of the 10 closest
properties. I then recorded the results in a table. I had some
problems when measuring the frontages of buildings because on this
investigation we had to work with partners so that the data could be
collected quickly and not to waste that much time.

My partner Manbir, was considerably taller than me so that meant that
his paces were longer strides than mine, which would give him
different results and would not give us accurate results.

Also, another problem with the frontages were when we had to measure
corner sites, because it was difficult to measure them and could
potentially give me inaccurate results shown on my transect route
(attached in my data presentation). Another reason why the frontages
wasn't accurate because it was tiring which affected the stride
towards the end and start of the field trip. The weather was also dull
which might has affected the moral of the students which then
therefore affected the results. An improvement to this method could be
using a metre wheel, which gives you a more accurate result quicker.
There would be no physical effort required when using the metre wheel,
other than pushing it along.

As we got closer to the CBD, instead of describing the shop quality, I
had to describe the environmental quality, because it is known that
the closer you get to the CBD the more shops, offices and in general
more buildings, also street cleanliness will improve. This means that
if we had carried on with analysing the shop quality, the amount of
data would be large; this is why the description changed to
environmental quality. This was shown in my results.

As we go further west of Kidderminster, towards the CBD, we came
across a ring Road, it is here we carry on using the environmental
quality and frontages sheet, but this time we had to include building
details as we walk down Oxford street, still keeping to the left hand
side of the road getting closer and closer to the CBD. I know this
because, the height of the buildings was starting to increase, and as
in my prediction the frontages of each building was decreasing in
width, this is because as described by a typical CBD, there is more
competition of land which can potentially produce smaller shops,
because we all know the Central Business District is infamous for
attracting tourists, business people and the public it self.

The evidence to show this was that on Oxford street, the size of the
frontages were an average of 8 paces with ' Thursfield Solicitors' as
an example shop, and on vicar street (the last street leading to the
heart of the CBD) the paces were on an average of 5 and 'The Orange
Shop'. This shows us that the quality increases while the frontages
decreases.

As the group eventually reached the CBD, we then had to analyse the
amount of pedestrians in comparison from the CBD going back towards
Lea Street. A time limit of 5 minutes per point was decided between
both me an my partner, this was because we had to evenly use the same
amount of time for each transect route, otherwise the investigation
would not be fair.

The number of pedestrians was recorded on the pedestrian count sheet.
On the sheet we recorded the number of men, women, and under 16 year
olds visible and then the total number of pedestrians, this was done
at 10 different transects. Each individual was recorded as tally, and
after five minutes the timer was stopped and the tally was then
totalled until all 10 transects were completed.

There were not that many problems that my pair and me encountered when
doing the pedestrian count, my opinion is that it was the most
effortless task to follow.

The only problem could have happened near the end of the pedestrian
count was that near to transect E2, there is a school opposite it,
this could of meant that more children would of became a factor if the
school was to finish while we were conducting our experiment.
Fortunately, this was not a problem for my partner, and me because
thankfully the school had not ended in time when we were counting the
pedestrians

The weather, as I have mentioned before was dull and it may have
affected my results for the pedestrian count also, because the gloomy
weather may have restricted pedestrians to their homes, forcing them
not to go out. I will talk about this theory in-depth when analysing
the results.

Data Presentation and Analysis

The hypothesis in my introduction were used to collect my data and
arrange them into graphs an chart in order to state that basically, "Kidderminster
has the features of a typical CBD". In order to justify this
statement, graphical data will need to be presented. In my
methodology, the following tasks were investigated so that there was
hard evidence that Kidderminster does have some features of a CBD:

· The Frontage measurement when going towards the CBD

· The Environmental quality, which includes surrounding shops and
offices as you travel towards the CBD

· The amount of pedestrians present at each transect route for a
limited time, and how the it changes

· The different land use through out the Kidderminster investigation

· Does Kidderminster follow the Burgess Model, Hoyt model, Core an
frame model or neither of these land use classifications

I will firstly look at the pedestrian count, the table below shows the
data collected an from the pedestrian count, I have produced my own
pedestrian count table which is attached, but I thought that if I used
my original pedestrian table an used it along side the graph that I am
going to use, it would be more affective at portraying the differences
in pedestrians at different transect points.

Transect

Men

Women



Under 16's
==========

Total

1

2

7

0

6

0

1

2

14

2

2

6

1

5

4

3

7

14

3

4

13

1

7

3

4

8

24

4

2

10

8

7

7

4

17

21

[IMAGE]5

[IMAGE]2

7

8

14

2

2

12

23

6

8

25

3

17

3

6

14

48

7

22

33

[IMAGE]19

[IMAGE] 22

[IMAGE]8

18

49

73

8

[IMAGE]18

66

38

92

13

3

69

161

9

36

37

71

36

7

21

114

94

10

98

49

78

123

46

16

222

188

Figure 1

KEY:

[IMAGE] = North

Transect

=[IMAGE] East

Transect

Figure 1 shows us the variation in pedestrians from an urban area, to
a CBD. The prediction that as you move closer to the CBD, the greater
the amount of pedestrians there will be. This is still implied in the
table of results however, the circled marks I made on the chart
indicate the anomalous results, and this will be show more clearly in
the graphs below.

Figure 2

[IMAGE]

The graph above indicates that the closer you are to the C.B.D the
greater the population density. This is what I hypothesised.
Pedestrians do increase, but fluctuation does occur.

The reason why the pedestrian count would rise when travelling towards
the CBD, would be because of the wide variety of shops in which the
public could do shopping. Offices are located in Kidderminster's CBD,
this means that business executives or other forms of office workers
travel to the CBD because of their career.

Unusual results occurred at transects 8 and 9. There are various ways
of why this could of happened, which are listed below.

1. At transect point 8, there could have been a sale at a department
store, because transect 8 is at the beginning of the CBD shall we
say, because it is on Vicar Street, where the Town Hall is. There
are many famous shops included on Vicar Street including The
Orange Shop, Nationwide and WHSmiths etc.

2. The weather, day of the week, date and time was recorded because
any of these may have affected the survey. For example, the
weather could affect the survey because if it were dry then there
would possibly be more people outside than if it were raining.
This is my theory, because in my opinion, I believe that
pedestrians enjoy spending time outdoors if the climate is good.
The day of the week could affect the survey because there would
come into town at certain times of the year, for example at
Christmas or at holiday be a different number of people in town on
weekdays than at weekends. The date was important, as there may be
more people who would seasons. The time of day could affect
numbers of people if it was half day for example. Also the closing
and opening times of shops must be taken into consideration.

3. There could have been people near the CBD waiting, or travelling
on important routes, for example, people who are waiting for a bus
at the buss stop. This could mean that high pedestrian densities
were found in areas where the other predictions of Central
Business District properties weren't necessarily true. For example
there may be poor shopping quality and a high pedestrian count. In
this aspect, the survey is flawed, but not many surveys are
perfect. As so many points were done, one or two anomalies
shouldn't matter too much to the overall theory that Kidderminster
has the features of a CBD.

4. At transect point 8, there are only three under 16's which are
noted, this could have been a human error, or another reason might
be that most children might have been in school, but this does not
suggest the reason why there are 21 under 16's which are at point
9 on the graph shown in figure 2.

Figure 3

[IMAGE]

If I compare my results to the North Transects results I can make sum
conclusions. Seen as though the students analysing the North transect
points had overall more pedestrians in their survey could be more
reliable than the East transects results, because the students doing
the Northern transect might have stayed at each transect point for
longer and therefore more reliability has gone into their results.
However, in the East transect, there might have been less pedestrians
rooming the streets or going to work, or any other. This could mean
that in some transect points there would be less pedestrians in
others, e.g., figure 2 at Transect point 8.

Neither less, the two graphs (figure 2 and 3) prove that my prediction
is coming into action, because the number of pedestrians does increase
as you go towards the CBD.

In my Introduction I made some predictions to state that Kidderminster
has the features of a CBD. One of my hypotheses was that, "The Shop
and Environmental quality will increase, as you get closer to the
CBD". This is because a CBD has the most shops, offices, entertainment
and culture. The area has a lot of money to be spent on improving
pedestrian activity.

[IMAGE]Figure 4

Figure 4 above shows the shop quality from transect 1 to 10. Each
point on the graph has a score out of 15 for its shop quality, for
example E8 has a score of 9 out of 15, which is above average. The
graph will help me to determine whether the shop quality increases,
the further you move into the CBD, this will also assist me to
conclude whether my prediction was right about the CBD in
Kidderminster.

The graph pattern shows that the closer you get to the CBD the higher
the quality building score. This is what I predicted earlier on.
Unusual results occurred at transect 1 where you would expect to find
a lower shop quality because it is further away from the CBD although
shop quality is higher is obviously higher than transect 2 and 3. The
reason for this could be that the land at transect 1 is in the suburbs
and the buildings may be of a better quality because of urban
expansion has taken place.

At point 8 in the graph, there is a downfall in quality, this may be
because, and there would have been a derelict shop, in which there was
next to the Orange Shop. The reason for the derelict building may be
because, the competition for land is so fierce that another company
has either taken the business of that shop away or another company has
brought the shop and is refurbishing the store. This agrees with the
Core and Frame diagram, in which the frame represents the smaller
shops tend to cluster together to take advantage of competition.

As I mentioned before, when I was analyzing the pedestrian count
results, I said that the reason for the pedestrians to increase when
going closer to the CBD was because of the "wide variety of shops in
which the public could do shopping". To see if this theory is true, I
will compare both pedestrian count and the shop quality in order to
justify the statement.

Figure 5

Eastern Transect Points

Number of Pedestrians

This could be an anomalous result, because it attracts the second
highest amount of pedestrians to that transect point. Or is the shop
quality an important factor in attracting pedestrians?

Shop Quality Score

E1

14

3

E2

14

0

E3

24

[IMAGE]2

E4

21

7

E5

23

9

E6

48

11

E7

73

12

E8

161

9

E9

94

13

E10

188

15

Figure 6

[IMAGE]

If you study both figure 5 and figure 6, you can see that the shop
quality in Kidderminster may or may not affect the amount of
pedestrians in that particular area. Unfortunately my hypothesis was
wrong in which was "The reason why the pedestrian count would rise
when traveling towards the CBD, would be because of the wide variety
of shops in which the public could do shopping".

This is not the case if we look at transect point E2 on figure 5, we
can see that as the shop quality was 0 (0 = no shops) out of 15, the
amount of pedestrians was 14.

Also at transect point E8 on figure6, we can see that the amount of
pedestrians has increased dramatically, but the shop quality is 9 out
of 15, whereas the next transect point (E9) has a shop quality of 13
out of 15, but only attracts 94 pedestrians.

I can now conclude that Shop quality is not a major factor in
affecting pedestrian numbers. The shop quality scores do rise as the
further you go into the CBD, so do the pedestrian numbers, but are not
affected by the other.

Figure 7

[IMAGE]

Figure 7 shown above indicates and supports my prediction in saying
that, "The Shop and Environmental quality will increase, as you get
closer to the CBD."

The reason why the environmental quality increases is because, the CBD
is a well looked after area; there are various different department
and chain stores situated inside the domains of the CBD such as
"British Home Stores". Now because this store is famous for the
various amounts of products it has, if there is litter or graffiti
near or next to the store, this will be a push factor towards the
pedestrians and this in tern will be a loss of profits for the store
itself.

Also, the CBD has maximum security so that if any vandals or jus
people whom through litter on the ground, they will be caught on CCTV.
In Kidderminster, when we reached the CBD there were numerous amount
of police officers on patrol to make sure everything is running
"smoothly" inside the CBD.

Figure 7 suggests a high environmental quality throughout, with a
steady but gradual increase. My only concern is at transect point E7,
where the environmental quality has decreased. I believe this is
because, point E7 is located at the end of Oxford Street where there
are many small, privately owned businesses, such as newsagents, cafés
and hairdressing Salon's. E7 could be low on environmental quality
because their could be a lack of rubbish bins in which therefore
pedestrians could easily and have no other choice but to throw their
waste on the ground, without considering the environment.

My prediction does not entirely support the graph on figure 7, because
at transect point E1 and E2 the environmental quality is on the
increase, this is because that is where Lea Street is located and
therefore a residential area. However, the closer to get to the CBD,
you reach some shops that are of local quality and this is where the
environmental quality decreases steadily until transect point E8.

Neither less, the environmental quality does increase as you travel
towards the Central Business District.

Figure 8

[IMAGE]

This graph above shows us that the traffic increases as you go towards
the CBD; I know this because at point E8, E9 and E10, the score for
the survey in 5 out of 5, this may be because there are pedestrians
shopping at different shops.

At transect point E6 and E7, the pedestrians safety is surprisingly
low, this is because there is the last road before the CBD, and it
must be busy throughout the day.

The closer you get to the C.B.D the greater the traffic/pedestrian
segregation. This is shown in the graph above this is what I expected
as the closer you get to the town centre the greater the population
density (as shown in the population density graph) and the smaller the
roads resulting in traffic congestion

Figure 9


[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]
------------------------------------------

Linear formation of housing

Bay Windows

Small or no front garden

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[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]
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High quality shops in the CBD

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Safer cleaner streets

And no litter

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Highly attractive and pedestrianised

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Figure 10
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The two pictures suggest the major differences throughout my
investigation in Kidderminster, because when we started off in the
residential Zone of Lea Street, the quality was very basic and
sometimes, unattractive to look at. However, as I gradually made my
way to the CBD I could then begin to see that the land use had changed
and the area had become more pedestrianised


The land usage when analysing Lea Street was also noted and the data
representation of the actual land usage on that street is shown
overleaf, in which each building on Lea Street will be classified.
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The data shown, gives a summary of the descriptions taken from Lea
Street. The data shows the frontages for the buildings and the land
use classification type. By studying this piece of data, I can see
that the type of land use was residential, because the frontages were
virtually the same throughout the street, which shows us that the
buildings were built at the same time and are not supposedly
potentially larger or smaller than one another. The street was fairly
clean, but there were some signs of uncleanness, such as litter and
un-kept front gardens.
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A Photograph to show a section of land use on Lea Street
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[IMAGE]Figure 12
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[IMAGE][IMAGE]Text Box: Satellite dishes and double glazed windows for luxury[IMAGE]Text Box: No off-road parking for house owners
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[IMAGE]
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[IMAGE]
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Text Box: Broken part of front wall suggests signs of erosion or criminal damage
Text Box: Linear formation of housing, which provides lack of space
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From looking at figure 12, we can see that the quality of living in
Lea Street is not below average, because the photograph does show that
some homes have satellite dishes, which means that they have a broad
range of TV channels, also there are also some residents of Lea Street
who have double glazing for their windows, which provides minimum heat
loss and is also sort to be a luxury item. However, the houses on Lea
Street have their disadvantages, because there is no garage space for
cars to be securely parked away, and are just parked on the street.
There is less room in these houses because of the linear formation,
which can be a disadvantage in some ways.
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When we reached the end of the street, we come across a specialist
shop, which has size 11 frontage, which shows us that the frontages
could start to increase beyond the street.
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My next analysis is of the land use throughout the Eastern transect,
from Oxford Street to the High Street. My aim in this analysis is to
see how the land use differs.

Figure 13, which is provided, shows the difference in land use from
the start of Oxford Street, up until High Street. From the data given,
I used the "Land Use Classification" sheet as a key for each building
and its classification.

If we start at Oxford Street, which is just outside the main core of
the CBD, we see that there are plenty of shops and a range of other
services, such as café, hairdresser, convenience shop etc. This is
because we are approaching the CBD and therefore, there must be
services to the public, this also supports my prediction in that there
will be a range of different shops.

As we go passed Oxford Street onto Vicar Street, we see that the
buildings are mainly shops providing a service to the public. At the
start of Vicar Street, we firstly meet a Town Hall, now this suggests
that we have reached the CBD, because not only that, but the road is
now pedestrianised and there are more on the pavements, and on the
actual roads leading up to High Street. There are Specialist shops
that provide expensive goods to the public, such as T.H. Baker for
example; the total atmosphere is rather busy and exciting. Near to the
end of Vicar Street, we can see on the land use data map, that there
are two shops that are under "Change" in the classification.

This is because that the shops are under construction to produce a new
building, probably for a major chain store, because as I said before;
there is high competition for land in the CBD, and this therefore
makes the land use more expensive which means that high Multi-chain
companies would be in position for these slots in the CBD.

As we then reach the High Street, we see that the buildings are mainly
Department/ variety/ major chain stores. The quality of the
surrounding area is at its utmost highest and the frontages get
smaller, as the competition for land increases.

Data Interpretation

From the graphs, photographs, tables and diagrams, I can obtain the
following overall results:

1. The number of pedestrians does increase as you go towards the CBD

2. The shop quality scores do rise, the further you go into the CBD

3. The environmental quality does increase as you travel towards the
CBD

4. The closer you get to the C.B.D the greater the
traffic/pedestrian segregation.

5. The quality of land usage increases, the further you get to the
CBD.

These results are proof to the fact that "Kidderminster does have the
typical features of a CBD". I have carried out many tests in which
this theory has been proven correct.

Through the analysis of each graph and the comparison between the
Northern transect's results for the Pedestrian Count, it was made
clear that the amount of pedestrians does increase the further you
reach the CBD. This was the same result for the North Transect route
also.

In deciding whether the Shop quality increased, I used a scatter graph
to view the data. I also compared the results with the results of the
pedestrian count in the eastern transect. I did this because I
believed that as the pedestrian count increased, the shop quality also
increased, however this was not the case because my theory was proven
wrong. However, the overall shop quality did increase.

The same was proven for environmental quality, because there was a
gradual increase, this is not entirely shown, because at Lea Street,
the overall quality was good, but then the environmental quality went
on a slope, but then revived it self and there was a steep increase in
the graph on page 13. To improve on this result, I would have to take
more readings of the environmental quality and observe it better.

There was a dense population in the "heart" of the CBD, which was also
agreed with the textbook definition and my own hypothesis. This is
because, the CBD basically attracts people far and wide to shop, work,
and relax in that particular district. On the graph (Figure 8) on page
14, it shows an unusual pattern in the traffic/pedestrian segregation,
this could have been because; it is unpredictable to account whether
pedestrian would be at a certain point in time.

The last results I acquired from my data presentation were the land
usage. This was a broad result, in which the land was used for the
same things at different points, for example an newsagents can be
located at transect point 4 and transect point 9. My overall result
was that the main land usage for the CBD was of major, well-known
stores such as, W.H. Smiths, All Sports, and The Orange Shop etc.

There was point about Kidderminster that I came across and that should
be notified, one is that Kidderminster is a fairly large town, and in
order for it to be a typical CBD it should have high rise buildings,
this may be because Kidderminster is not a big enough town to have
high rise buildings, because it would use valuable land, this is a
disadvantage for Kidderminster not being a city.

Evaluation

In hindsight, I believe that my fieldwork investigation was a success,
because I was able to prove my hypotheses by producing results in the
form of graphs and tables so that the data is easily legible.

However, not everything went so smoothly when carrying out the
investigation, also there are many improvements that can be made to
the investigation, to make it even more reliable, as I will explain.

My first problem I encountered was when dealing with the frontages
measurements. This was because the results of the frontages were
basically unreliable, because my partner had a considerably taller
height to me, so the length of each building would be shorter to my
partner because he would have had longer strides.

A way to improve on this method of frontages is to use a metre wheel,
because this is easy to use and is an effective way of recording the
frontage of each building, without having to take strides each time.

The reliability of data is not accurate, because on the Eastern
Transect route, I never saw any factories of work, this does not mean
that there are no factories in Kidderminster. It just means that the
route was not well thought out, because we have to see the whole
surroundings of the CBD, in order to make valid conclusions and
evaluations about whether Kidderminster has the features of a typical
CBD.

The weather played an important part in this investigation, because
when carrying out the Pedestrian count survey, the weather may have
influenced the pedestrians to return home, or to find shelter in
doors. The atmosphere was rather dull when doing the count, which
could of made people to stay indoors. Also, "Under 16's" had to be
included in the count, but the investigation was carried out on a
school day, which meant that most under 16's would be in school.

To improve this part of the investigation, the pedestrian count should
be carried out on the weekend, when no people are restricted to
schools, or other institutes. This survey, and the entire
investigation can also be repeated on a separate day to compare the
results, and this can also give more stability to the overall results
of the pedestrian count.

Another problem was the environmental and shop quality, because this
was purely measured by my own opinion of what I could see, and not by
using hard evidence. I did have an anomalous result in Figure 5, in
which the shop quality did not following the natural trend of the
table. To improve upon this method, a range of people could pass their
judgement to whether the environmental quality and shop quality scores
high or low. A collective view can produce more accurate results, but
my results according to my graph, proved my prediction correct
overall.

When recording the details for each building along the left hand side
for Lea Street, I had to fill in a range of details for the land type,
quality and frontages. However, there was also another box in which
you could put in any addition comments about each building. This was
also un-reliable, because it was not specific, and the comments could
include details such as age of the building, whether it had
double-glazing or not, name of the building etc. Some of these choices
are sufficient enough to use, such as double glazing for quality,
however the choices are unlimited and some can be used purely opinion
based, such as how old the building looks.

If I compare Kidderminster to Birmingham, I can see that they both
differ greatly, because firstly Birmingham is a well-established city,
whereas Kidderminster is a town. In Birmingham, the CBD has high-rise
buildings, chain and department stores, office blocks and banks,
tourist attractions such as the newly built Bull Ring.

This in comparison to Kidderminster is a complete and fully-fledged
CBD, because it meets all the requirements from textbook definitions,
and to my hypotheses.

Kidderminster relates to my hypotheses but because Kidderminster isn't
apart of the West Midlands Conurbation, it can't be compared to a city
such as Birmingham, because it has a great CBD.

The investigation in Kidderminster went very well in my opinion, but
in some cases improvements could be made to achieve more accurate and
reliable results. The graphs that were plotted off the results show
trends in surveys such as the pedestrian counts in which it increases.
Kidderminster met most of my predictions and it would be safe to say
that Kidderminster does have the features of a typical CBD.

Bibliography

· The Kidderminster maps were used from "Dorling Kindersley: World
Atlas" and www.google.co.uk search Kidderminster map

· The Burgess and Hoyt Models were taken from the web site
http://www.geographyjim.org/burgess.htm

· Other sources of information such as information about the Burgess
Model and the Hoyt Model were used from the following textbooks,
Understanding GCSE Geography and Complete Geography by Chapman.

· To create the graphs and tables, I had to use Microsoft Excel to
measure and accurately produce these pieces of information

· The photographs of Kidderminster were used from Mr Phillips
(Geography teacher) who provided the photographs.
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