The Origin of Fencing, Rowing, Tennis, Cock-fighting, Swimming, Golf, Badminton, Boxing and Bullfighting

The Origin of Fencing, Rowing, Tennis, Cock-fighting, Swimming, Golf, Badminton, Boxing and Bullfighting

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The Origin of Fencing, Rowing, Tennis, Cock-fighting, Swimming, Golf, Badminton, Boxing and Bullfighting


It is thought that the Egyptians began fencing as a sport and this is
derived from images on walls and relics from that time. The images
show fencers wearing forms of protective clothing, earflaps and having
covers on the ends of their swords. It is also thought that they may
have been used to let fighters practice their swordsmanship, without
any danger of being harmed.

Fencing will take place at the Helliniko Olympic Complex However,
modern fencing is claimed by the Italians, Spanish and French and it
is in the 18th Century the current system of rules, scoring and
equipment came into place. The equipment was prescribed as the Foil, a
metal mask with eye slits and a protective vest or jacket.

Fencing has been included in the Olympic program.

Duels were commonly used to settle disputes and its popularity
developed in public schools and universities during the nineteenth
century.

Today fencing is practised throughout the world with three weapons:

The foil which was produced for sporting purposes.

The epee which was produced for infantry fighting.

The sabre which was produced as a cavalry weapon.

The women's foil was first contested at the 1924 Games, but it was not
until 1996 that women's epee followed.

WHO began fencing as a sport?

When was women's fencing included in the Olympic program?

What equipment is needed?

ROWING

Rowing began as a utilitarian activity, when it provided the power for
transport in industrial towns and warships. By the 18th century there
were over 40 000 watermen and frequent contest were common. By the 19th
century the standard of rowing was increasing. Professionalism was
also increasing and as this did so rowing races attracted an enormous
following. However the professionals soon began to coach amateur crews
and it is due to this rise in amateurism and the power held by middle
class administrators that professionalism declined.

The firsts were heavy and wide, with fixed seats and oars rested on

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the side of the boat. The first significant development came in 1846
when Oxford developed outriggers. These allowed the oars to be secured
away from the side of the boat, providing more leverage and stability,
and therefore leading to the boats themselves becoming narrower and
more streamlined. In 1946 women were only allowed to watch the sport
but this changed in the following years. The next major development
was the transition from fixed seats to the sliding ones we have today,
this change being implemented by Yale oarsmen in 1870.

[IMAGE]The amateur rowing association was formed in 1882 but its
strict social class discrimination urged the National Amateur rowing
Association to be formed in 1890. This association based its
amateur-professional rules strictly on monetary values rather than
social class.

Rowing became competitive at Oxford and Cambridge Universities in the
early 19th century and the first university boat race took place in
1829.

WHAT was rowing originally used for?

WHAT is the name of the NGB?

WHAT is the difference between the original and modern boats?

REAL TENNIS

This sport started as hand ball in the 11th century and was played by
monks around the cloisters of monasteries in Italy and France. It was
brought to Britain by the Tudors. The sport was one of noblemen and
royalty and in 1536 there were restrictive acts put in place
forbidding labourers and servants to play. This was done to try and
retain its privledged status.

Real Tennis Originally the game was played with the bare hand, then
with a glove, someone then attached cord or tendons to the fingers.
This was a short step away from attaching these cords to a frame and
adding a handle to form a racket. The ball although was similar in
appearance to a lawn tennis ball is made with a core of cork, covered
in cloth, tightly bound in string and covered in felt. The balls are
all hand stitched and lasted for about 2 weeks.

It is now thought that this sport is a product of evolution rather
than invention. Nowadays racquets are wooden framed, and individually
strung by the club professional to suit a player's needs.

What equipment was the game originally played with?

Who first played the game?

When was the game first played?

COCK FIGHTING

This was the most popular blood sport which set animal against animal
and it is thought that it comes from a religious ritual. The sport was
based on the thought that the cocks natural aggressions made a fair
fight and each had an equal chance of victory, if they were well
matched. Cocks were bred and trained to fight and metal claws were
often attached to their feet during the 17th century.

The sport was popular across all social classes in both urban
and rural areas, for its entertainment and gambling potentials.

Nowadays cock-fighting is illegal under the Cruelty to animals Act of
1840. This act was mainly passed as the sport was no longer to be
considered as suitable for a civilised society.

Where does it come from?

Is it still around today?

Was it played by any specific class?

SWIMMING

Relics from ancient Egyptshow people swimming goes back many years.
However it was not taken up in Europe until the nineteenth century
because it was believed that water spread disease. Swimming was
included in the 1896 Olympic games which were held in Athens, in this
Olympics there were only three races in which men took part in. These
were the 100m, 500m and 1200m by 1908 backstroke, freestyle and
breaststroke was included in the program. The first women's event was
the 100m and was added in 1912. It developed when rowing and yachting
became popular

In 1734, the first open air swimming pool was built in London, but it
was, mainly undertaken in canals and rivers. The lower classes used
these facilities more and this therefore put the upper classes off of
using them.

The amateur Swimming Association was formed in 1886 and this was
followed by the Federation Internationale de Natation amateur. These
federations formed rules and guidelines and in the 1912 Olympics in
Stockholm women's swimming was an event.

When was the Amateur Swimming Association formed?

When was the first women's event held in the Olympics?

GOLF

Golf is said to have originated from a game played on the Eastern
coast of Scotlandduring the 15th Century, where a pebble would be hit
around a course of sand dunes, rabbit runs and tracks using a stick or
a primitive club. Although there were lots of stick and ball games,
they were missing the unique thing to golf, The Hole.

The Gentlemen Golfers of Leith was the first club to be formed and it
is them who drafted the first rules.

[IMAGE]In 1916 the Professional Golfers Association of America was
formed. Clubs were introduced with grooves and it people were soon
hitting the ball further. In 1921 the R and A limited the ball size
and weight and now Golf is regulated jointly by the R&A and the USGA.

The first woman reported to have played Golf is Mary Queen of Scots in
1567 and the first club to include women in its activities was called
the North Berwick Club.

WHEN did golf originate?

WHEN was the PGA formed?

WHO was the first reported woman to play Golf?

BADMINTON

It is said that badminton was first played in 1860 when the daughters
of a Lord were playing a game of shuttlecock and battledore in
Badminton house. They decided to add a bit of variety to the game by
putting a net across the room, they made the aim to keep the
shuttlecock above the net. It is said that to make the game even more
interesting someone suggested that the shuttlecock should be hit away
from the opposing player rather than towards them. This was the birth
of Badminton.

[IMAGE] By the mid to late 1870s indoor clubs were being formed in
England and in no time at all clubs were wishing to pit their skills
against each other. It is interesting to note that there were no
shuttlecock manufacturers in those days, so players had to make their
own shuttlecocks from whatever materials were available. In 1893 the
Badminton Association of England was formed and there were no laws
governing the size of court dimensions, numbers of players or scoring.

Since that time badminton has developed into a sport that can be
played by everybody. Badminton is one of the few sports in which women
can compete on equal terms in a partnership with a man; indeed, mixed
doubles is regarded as one of the most entertaining forms of
badminton.

WHO were the first people to play badminton?

When was the Badminton Association formed?

Can women play equally with the men?

BOXING

The hands are the earliest weapons used by man and therefore it is not
a surprise to hear that boxing is the most ancient sports. In the 17th
century boxing was considered a thrilling pastime, invigorating
exercise and was good entertainment for the public. However due to its
unruly structure it was mainly the lower classes that took an interest
in it.

Modern boxing was introduced by Jim Figg. In 1867 Marquis of
Queensberry reviewed all aspects of boxing and drew up 12 rules. He
decided on the use of padded gloves, canvas and three-minute rounds
with a one minute interval between them. Due to these renovations the
sport was regarded as a noble sport.

Womens boxing goes back to before the 1990's and one of the
earliest female boxing matches was in the 1950's. In 1998
Britainsfirst professional bout between two women boxers were played.
The bout only lasted three minutes. In 1904 boxing was included into
the Olympic program.

WHO introduced modern boxing?

When was the first female bout fought in Britain?

When was it included in the Olympic program?

BULLFIGHTING

Bullfighting began as a religious rite in the mediteranean
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