Rates of Reaction

Rates of Reaction

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Rates of Reaction


Planning
========

To measure the rates of reaction three variables were used. Firstly, a
basic experiment was set up this was a delivery tube connecting a test
tube filled with water in a bowl of water to a flask with calcium
carbonate with a solution of hydrochloric acid. Various sizes of
calcium carbonate was used (large, medium and powered particles) each
variable was tested 4 times. As the particles and acid were mixed
together the time was recorded to see how long the mass (test tube of
water) took to decrease. The time was recorded at every 2cm³ interval.
The results collected were the seconds the mass decreased to 2cm³,
4cm³, 6cm³ 8cm³ and 10cm³. The different particles are varied to show
if the surface area has an effect on the rate the reaction.

The second variable was the concentration of the acid. The same
experiment was carried out but this time the practical used different
molars of the acid (2molar, 1 molar and 0.5molar). As the same size
particles were added each time a different molars of acid was added
with the particles. The time was recorded at each 2cm³ interval.
Several experiments were carried out using different molars to compare
the results. Varying the concentrations helps to prove a higher molar
of acid reacts faster.

The third variable was temperature this was completed in the same way.
Before the acid was mixed with the calcium carbonate the acid was
heated up at different temperatures using a bunsen burner. The three
different temperatures the acid was heated at were 25ºc (room temp),
35ºc and 45ºc. The results collected were the times recorded each time
the mass decreased every 2cm³ intervals. The temperatures will change
because differences in temperatures will show if the rate of the
reactions increases or decrease.

Equation:

Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid à Calcium chloride + Carbon
dioxide+ water

Equipment:

Calcium carbonate particles - (larger, medium and powder)

Hydrochloric Acid - (2m, 1m, 0.

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Related Searches

5m)

Test tube/flask

Delivery tubes/bung

Bunsen Burner/thermometer for temperature

Timer/Stopwatch

Sodium Thiosulphate

Hypothesis:

There are many different ways to measure the rate of reaction these
includes measuring the surface area, concentration solution,
temperature, lights or brightness and using catalysts. I think by
carrying out this practical to measure the surface area the powered
calcium carbonate will react the fastest with the acid than the medium
or large particles. I think this because power is larger surface area
than larger particles. By measuring the concentration of the solution
the 0.5 molar being the weakest acid therefore will take more time for
the mass to decrease. I think this because there are fewer collisions,
which will lead to slower reactions. I think by varying the
temperature it should effect the reaction, a high temperature will
decrease the mass at quicker speed this is because increasing
temperature allows particles to move faster and again this leads to
faster reactions.

Before the experiment was carried out a trail practical was completed.
The particles were weighed at 0.03g and the time was recorded at each
cm³ but as a group we decided to change this to 2cm³ interval because
a cm³ was not a noticeable change. The particles were not weighed out
because 36 experiments were carried out and weighing each time would
take time.

Volume

Time (sec)

1cm³

5

2cm³

6

3cm³

7

4cm³

9

5cm³

12

6cm³

13

7cm³

15

8cm³

18

9cm³

20

10cm³

23

Trail experiment results:



Results
=======


Variable - Particles

Powder:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

0

0

0

0

0

4cm³

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

6cm³

8cm³

10cm³

1

1

1

1

1

Medium:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

31

28

34

22

29

4cm³

56

46

56

37

49

6cm³

77

60

73

53

66

8cm³

95

80

89

64

82

10cm³

112

85

102

75

94

Large:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

27

10

11

14

16

4cm³

40

19

25

30

29

6cm³

53

31

38

42

41

8cm³

62

36

49

35

46

10cm³

69

52

57

64

61


Variable - Concentration

O.5 Molar:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

61

55

65

63

61

4cm³

95

85

115

110

106

6cm³

133

130

167

141

143

8cm³

166

165

190

178

172

10cm³

179

181

205

195

190

I Molar:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

8

7

7

8

8

4cm³

13

13

13

15

14

6cm³

17

18

17

20

18

8cm³

21

22

21

24

22

10cm³

24

26

28

28

27

2 Molar:


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

6

4

5

4

5

4cm³

9

8

9

6

8

6cm³

13

11

12

10

12

8cm³

17

15

16

15

16

10cm³

19

17

18

17

18


Variable - Temperature

25ºc (Room temp)


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

14

16

24

11

16

4cm³

21

26

37

19

26

6cm³

26

34

48

26

34

8cm³

29

41

55

31

39

10cm³

33

47

63

36

45

35ºc


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

7

5

2

4

5

4cm³

11

7

3

6

7

6cm³

13

9

4

8

9

8cm³

17

12

5

10

11

10cm³

19

14

6

12

13

45ºc


Mass
----

1

Attempts-

2

Time in sec

3

4

Average

2cm³

1

1

1

1

1

4cm³

2

2

2

2

2

6cm³

3

3

3

3

3

8cm³

4

4

4

4

4

10cm³

5

5

5

5

5


Analysing

After completing this practical the results recorded show the surface
area, concentration and temperature affect the rate of reactions. In
the first experiment with the variable of surface area the powder was
immeasurable this shows the larger surface area (calcium carbonate
powder) reacts the fastest taking less time for the mass to decrease.
This is shown by the slopes on the graph - the shorter the slope the
faster the reaction. You can see from graph1 that powered calcium
carbonate reacts faster than larger or medium particles. This happens
because acid particles meet the powered particles more often (larger
surface area) increasing the rate of reaction.

The diagram below shows how the surface are affects the rate of the
reaction. By breaking up the solid into smaller pieces like power the
surface area is increased giving more area for collisions to take
place leading to faster reactions.

[IMAGE]


The second variable of concentration shows the higher the
concentration of acid the faster the decrease of mass. This can be
shown on graph 2 - the highest molar of acid (2m) took the least
seconds whereas a weaker concentration (0.5m) required the most.
Increasing the concentration increases the amount of particles and so
collisions between them occur more frequently. The increase in
particle collision leads to faster reactions.

The diagram below shows the effect concentration, temperature has on
the rate of reaction. It shows how the particles increase when the
concentration and temperature of acid is increased. As it increases
the particles mover closer together giving more changes of collisions,
which result to a faster rate of reaction. The same theory can be
shown for pressure.

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

Increase Concentration

Increase Temperature

Increase Pressure


Changes in temperatures also give effects in rates of a reaction.
Graph 3 shows the line with the steepest slope (25ºc) required the
most time. As temperature increases the particles move faster leading
to more collisions. Also the particles have more energy and so further
collisions will lead to faster reactions. The results collected from
the practical shows the hypothesises were correct for the increase
temperature, concentration and surface area.

Evaluation

The different experiments carried out measure the mass volume at
different intervals. Thirty-six experiments were completed in the same
way to produces enough reliable and accurate results. A few unexpected
results occurred but these could be of a number of reasons including a
mix of different acid molars. This problem occurred during the second
extra part of the practical measuring the concentration rate with
sodium thiosulphate. If the practical was to repeat a second time
there are many parts that could be changed or added for the experiment
to produce more reliable and accurate results.

As well as concentration, temperature and surface area other factors
that affect the rate of reaction and could be tested is the pressure
(if gases are involved) by increasing pressure the mixture of gases
increase forcing the particles to move closer together. Light -
reactions in sunlight or uv light can increase rate of reactions and
using catalysts. By adding catalysts the rate of the reaction can be
speeded up. Catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a
reaction but stays the same.

Other experiments that could be carried out to find the rates of
reactions could be following a loss in mass this practical is simple
and involves reacting a solid (calcium carbonate) and following the
loss in mass, this practical would produce reliable results but the
school limits accurate scales and so this experiment could not be
tested. If the same experiment could be improved a syringe would be
used to collect and measure the gas this would produce more reliable
and accurate results. Other experiments could be counting the amount
of bubbles given off from the reaction mixture. This experiment
involves counting the amount of bubbles a higher number of bubbles
given off shows amount the of gas given off.

Extra: Measuring concentration rate using Sodium Thiosulphate.

An extension part of the practical was to measure the time taken for a
cloudy mixture to form when sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
when mixed together. Firstly 25ml of acid at three different variables
of concentration (0.5m, 1m and 2m) and 25ml of sodium thiosulphate are
measured and poured into a beaker with a black cross underneath it.
The results collected were the times recorded for the cross to
disappear. This experiment was carried out 4 times at each different
molar of acid to produced averages.

When the two solutions are mixed together:

Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid à Precipitant of Sulphur

Na25203 + 2HCL à 2NaCL + SO2 + S + H2O

Results:

Molar

Trail 1

2

3

4

Average

2

27

29

29

28

28

1

29

29

32

33

31

0.5

43

42

39

38

40

After completing this experiment the results suggest the higher
concentrated acid (2m) took the least time to turn cloudy. In the
higher concentrated solution (2m) there are more particles and so
collision occurs more often. As they collide faster they react. This
increases the rate of chemical reactions. By looking at the chart
above the most concentrated solution was at 2m only taking 27 seconds
to complete the practical whereas the 0.5molar was double the 2m
result.
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