Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysed Reaction

Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysed Reaction

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Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysed Reaction

To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of enzyme
catalysed reaction I must know all the factors that affect it in order
to investigate in this.

Here are all the factors:

Temperature- Enzyme like it warm but not too hot. Enzymes are
biological catalysts, which speed up chemical reactions. They work
most efficiently at the optimum point (37°C). If they are below 37°C
they will work slower. If the temperature goes over 45°C they will be
denatured due to the high heat.

PH- The pH affects the activity of enzymes. It depends on what
solution there surrounded in. Each enzyme works most efficiently at a
certain degree of acidity or alkalinity. Example - the enzymes in our
stomach (protease) are surrounded by hydrochloric acid at a pH of 2
(strong acid), which is the condition it works most efficiently at.

Concentration- If the solution is made more concentrated it means it
contains more particles and therefore speed up a reaction. If the
solution has a weak concentration it will have less particles and
therefore a slow reaction will occur.

All enzymes are biological catalysts. Living organisms have thousands
of chemical reactions going on inside them. Obviously the quicker the
reaction the better it is and it's important that the temperature is
at a correct level to speed them up. If the temperature is high
enough, above 45°C they will be denatured because enzymes are living
organisms and too much heat has an affect on them.

Enzymes do all sorts of different processes. Each one is designed to
do a specific job.

Example - they break down food.

Protein protease amino acid

[IMAGE]


Starch carbohydrase Glucose

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE]Lipids Lipase Fatty acids + Glycerol

These enzymes breakdown these foods. The acidity and alkalinity
depends on their rate of reaction. Enzymes do different jobs and
because of that they work in different conditions. The protease enzyme

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inside our stomach works most efficiently in acid of a pH of 2.

For my task I am going to use hydrogen peroxide (H202) and yeast
(enzyme). These two will be reacted together and I will collect the
amount of oxygen produced from the reaction. Hydrogen peroxide will
react with the yeast to form a chemical reaction. The yeast is the
enzyme. I will time the reaction for two minutes and collect the
amount of gas produced in a measuring cylinder.

I will need to draw a detailed diagram of the experiment and from this
I will be able to set up the experiment and will know the apparatus
needed.

To do this investigation I must choose one factor to vary and keep the
other factors constant, so it will be a fair test. I have decided to
vary the hydrogen peroxide concentration. The temperature will remain
constant at room temperature (25°C). The pH of the hydrogen peroxide
will be constant. The yeast concentration will also have to be
constant.



Apparatus list
==============

* Test tube with delivery tube

* Test tube rack

* 5ml syringe

* Trough

* Gas cylinder

* Beakers

* Needle

* Rubber bung

* Beehive

* Stopwatch

Diagram

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]Rubber bung
--------------------------------

[IMAGE][IMAGE] Gas cylinder

[IMAGE][IMAGE] Delivery tube

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] Oxygen bubbles

[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] Beehive

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]

[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] [IMAGE]


Test tube
---------

Trough of water

I will use 2ml of hydrogen peroxide and 2ml of yeast decided from
preliminary work. A measuring cylinder will measure the two solutions.
Before measuring the hydrogen peroxide I will have to dilute it. When
this has been done the two solutions will have to be put in a test
tube with a delivery tube to react together with a bung on top of the
test tube. A bung will be placed on top of the test tube to prevent
any escape of gas. A trough of water will be placed beside it. This
will contain a beehive with a gas cylinder placed on it with water.
The trough of water is used to measure the amount of gas produced from
the catalysed reaction. The side arm of the test tube will connect
with the beehive and gas cylinder. The gas cylinder will measure any
gas that's been produced. As gas is collected the water inside will
decrease indicating that the reaction is taken place. This reaction
will be timed for two minutes and after this I will record the amount
of gas collected. The evidence I will be planning to obtain is how
much gas is produced when different concentrations react with yeast.
Different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide will have different
amount of gas produced. The equipment I selected is needed to be used
accurately as possible so I can obtain accurate evidence. The
equipment is relevant for this task.



Fair test
=========

To keep this investigation fair I must only vary the concentration of
hydrogen peroxide and keep the factors constant. To do this
investigation I must choose one factor to vary and keep the other
factors constant, so it will be a fair test. I have decided to vary
the hydrogen peroxide concentration. The temperature will remain
constant at room temperature (25°C). The pH of the hydrogen peroxide
will be constant. The yeast concentration will also have to be
constant. Different beakers were used. Different syringes were used.
This was done to avoid any mix up.

Safety

While doing this experiment safety precautions must be taken seriously

* Plastic gloves were worn as I was handling dangerous chemicals.

* Safety coat was worn.

* Goggles were worn to protect my eye.

* Any coats and bags were put aside.

* Carefully handling the equipment as I was using glass.

Here is how I made my dilutions of hydrogen peroxide.

Molar

(M)

Volume of hydrogen peroxide

(Cm3)

Volume of Water

(Cm3)

1.0

10

0

0.8

8

2

0.6

6

4

0.4

4

6

0.2

2

8

0.0

0

0

Method

1. Collect all the apparatus needed from the apparatus list.

2. Set up the experiment as indicated from the diagram.

3. Make the dilutions of hydrogen peroxide. (Follow the table on how
to make dilutions)

4. Measure the amount of hydrogen peroxide to 2ml then put in test
tube and put on the bung on top.

5. Measure the amount of yeast to 2ml.

6. Inject this through the needle at the top of the bung and start the
stopwatch at the same time.

7. Start to collect gas and wait for two minutes.

8. When two minutes is up, then record the reading of the gas
cylinder.

9. Record the readings in a neat table.

10. Do this method each time.

Hypothesis

My prediction I make is that as the concentration increases the amount
of gas produced will also increase. As the hydrogen peroxide is
reacting with the yeast, gas will be produced. The reason for this is
that the yeast will breakdown the hydrogen peroxide to form oxygen
gas.

[IMAGE] H202 Yeast H202 + 02

If the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is strong it will
contain more particles in its solution. If the concentration is strong
the yeast will break it down and gas will be produced. If the
concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is weak it will contain less
particles in its solution and therefore the amount of gas produced
will be less due to less particles of hydrogen and oxygen.

The concentration of a solution is how much and how strong there is in
that solution. If the concentration of a solution contains a lot of
particles it means that the solution is strong. The yeast only breaks
whatever there is. If the solution has a strong concentration it will
breakdown a lot of particles in that solution as when a solution has a
weak concentration it will breakdown less particles in that solution.

Preliminary Work

Before I start my investigation I must do a trial run to see if I need
to make any changes to my plan. I first decided to use 5ml of hydrogen
peroxide and yeast to react together. This was a very fast reaction
and I was not able to collect any reliable evidence. After this I used
2ml of each solution and it was at a correct rate of reaction. I
decided to run the experiment for one minute but it was a short time
as the reaction wasn't near complete. I changed the time to two
minutes as this gave better results. From my preliminary work I had a
slight problem. When I added the hydrogen peroxide with the yeast to
react together in the test tube I quickly put the rubber bung on top.
This was not a good idea because as soon as the hydrogen peroxide and
yeast are mixed together the reaction starts and oxygen will be
produced but it will escape instead of being collected. To over come
this problem I decided to leave the bung on top and insert a needle so
that no oxygen will be lost.

From my preliminary work I decided to use a range of

1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 molar

This range of concentration is perfect to collect the evidence needed.
I will repeat the experiment five times for each concentration to get
a total reading of 25.

Here are my trial run results with the range I have chosen.

Trial run results

Concentration

(Molar)

Amount of Yeast

(Militres)

Amount of H202

(Militres)

Time taken

(Minutes)

Amount of Oxygen

(Cm3)

1.0 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

15.5 cm3

0.8 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

14.5 cm3

0.6 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

12.0 cm3

0.4 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

8.5 cm3

0.2 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

4.0 cm3

0.0 M

0 ml

0 ml

2 minutes

0.0 cm3

Secondary sources

To plan this investigation I had to analyse it in more detail. To
achieve this I used secondary sources:

· A book called "Edexcel Modular Science"

· Encyclopaedia

From these resources I obtained relevant information that will help me
plan my investigation.

Now I have done my plan I collected the evidence needed including
repeats.

Results obtained from Hydrogen peroxide reacting with Yeast

Concentration

(Molar)

Amount of Yeast

(Millitres)

Amount of H202

(Millitres)

Time taken

(Minutes)

Amount of Oxygen

(Cm3)

1

2

3

4

5

1.0 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

16.0 cm3

14.0 cm3

16.5 cm3

15.5 cm3

16.0 cm3

0.8 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

12.5 cm3

13.5 cm3

15.0 cm3

14.0 cm3

13.0 cm3

0.6 M

2ml

2 ml

2 minutes

10.0 cm3

10.0 cm3

11.0 cm3

10.0 cm3

10.0 cm3

0.4 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

8.0 cm3

7.0 cm3

7.5 cm3

7.0 cm3

7.0 cm3

0.2 M

2 ml

2 ml

2 minutes

3.0 cm3

3.5 cm3

3.5 cm3

3.0 cm3

3.0 cm3

0 M

0 ml

0 ml

0 minutes

0.0 cm3

0.0 cm3

0.0 cm3

0.0 cm3

0.0 cm3

Average results of Hydrogen peroxide reacting with Yeast

Concentration

(Molar)

Average

Amount

(Cm3)

1.0 ml

15.6 cm3

0.8 ml

13.6 cm3

0.6 ml

10.2 cm3

0.4 ml

7.3 cm3

0.2 ml

3.2 cm3

0.0 ml

0.0 cm3

From these repeats I have done I calculated the average. Here is an
example how I worked out the average.

1.0 Molar

16.0 + 14.0 + 16.5 + 15.5 + 16.0 ¸ 5 = 15.6 Cm3

Analysis

From my evidence I have found out that as the concentration increases
the amount of oxygen also increases. From the results I obtained I
plotted it on a line graph to analyse the results in great detail.
From this I can then draw a line of best fit and also see if there is
any trend or pattern. My graph shows that as the concentration of the
hydrogen peroxide increases the amount of oxygen also increases. The
line of best fit is appropriate because it will show any sort of trend
and also show any anomalies. My graph shows a positive correlation
with a couple of anomalies. The evidence I have obtained is sufficient
to write a firm conclusion of what I have found out.

Conclusion

From the graph I spotted a trend from the line of best fit. The
concentration of hydrogen peroxide has an affect on the amount of
oxygen produced. During the reaction the yeast is breaking down the
hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas.

H202 Yeast H202 + 02

[IMAGE]

The concentration of the hydrogen peroxide does matter, as it will
affect the amount of oxygen produced. If the concentration of the
hydrogen peroxide is strong e.g. 1.0 Molar it will contain more
particles of hydrogen and oxygen rather than a weak concentration e.g.
0.2 Molar. A strong concentration will produce more oxygen than a
weaker concentration. The yeast will be able to break down the
hydrogen peroxide depending on how strong or weak the concentration
is.

From looking at my graph we can see that when the concentration of the
hydrogen peroxide is 0.2 Molar the amount of oxygen produced is 3.2
Cm3 and when the concentration is 1.0 Molar the oxygen produced is
15.6 cm3. These results show that a strong concentration will produce
more oxygen than a weak concentration.

I have concluded that the concentration has an affect on the amount of
oxygen produced. My prediction I made was correct, which is proved by
my graph. My prediction matches my evidence and means I have collected
correct and accurate results.

Evaluation

My task did work out well. The reason it was good is because the
results I obtained were accurate. This indicates that my task was done
correctly. The method I created was done as accurately as possible,
just before starting the actual experiment. The procedures must be
correct because it is important so that I can obtain correct and
accurate evidence. Overall my planning was good as I got through the
experiment smoothly and getting the evidence needed, which were fair.

My evidence was accurate as shown by my graph. I drew a line of best
fit, which was appropriate. From this I found out that my results show
a strong relationship because a couple of points were just off the
line of best fit. This proves I obtained accurate results. As the line
of best fit was drawn a couple of points were just off it. These
anomalies are indicated with a circle around them. These anomalies do
not fit in with the line of best fit, which tells me that a human
error could of occurred. There are a few possible ways that a human
error could of occurred.

å Reading the measurement off the gas cylinder incorrectly.

å An error in making the concentration.

å Measuring the quantities incorrectly.

All these will affect my results.

To improve my method, so that I can obtain more accurate evidence I
would add an extra step in between step 6 and 7. As the hydrogen
peroxide is put in the test tube then closed with a rubber bung the
yeast is injected through the needle. The step I would add is to
"remember to do this every time by pouring the hydrogen peroxide in
the test tube and inject the yeast through the needle". This step is
important because if both hydrogen peroxide and yeast are put through
the needle then they would react and the oxygen produced will escape,
making it an unfair test.

My method gave evidence that is reliable and therefore it can always
be counted on to be correct. The procedures in my method are accurate
and precise. This is important because the method is how to collect
reliable evidence. It has all the details on what to do, which are put
into easy stages to follow and understand. This is done to ensure
reliable evidence to be obtained.

I have obtained enough evidence to draw a firmed conclusion. I did
five repeats for each concentration making a total reading of 25. From
the repeats I calculated an average result. These results are correct
and accurate as shown by my graph and also means that I can draw a
final conclusion that is correct.

To improve my plan I could use pipettes to measure the quantities more
accurately. If this was done I could ensure more accurate
concentrations. If the concentration is accurate more reliable results
would been obtained. Another improvement I could do is to do more
background research in order to produce a much better plan. I also
could of measured the reaction with a different technique.

Further work could have been carried out to get additional relevant
evidence. I could of done this investigation by varying the other
factors to investigate in that. Different acids and enzymes could have
been investigated under the same experiment; from this it will give my
conclusion more support.
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