The Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate and Recovery Time

The Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate and Recovery Time

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The Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate and Recovery Time

There are different factors that affect the heart rate, they are the
variables….

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I have decided to go for distance run for our variable. I decided that
the variables such as fitness and individual involved would be too
hard to measure fairly.



METHOD
======

As I decided to use distance run as my variable and I am going to use
Mark as my 'Guinea Pig', so I am going to make Mark run 20 meters, 40
meters, 60 meters, 80 meters and 100 meters. I am going to change the
distance run 5 times. I am going to record his resting heart rate, his
heart rate straight after exercise and time how long it takes for him
to recover. To make sure that my results are reliable and correct. I
am going to take the average of these two sets of results and use the
average for my graph and my final result.

For this experiment I am going to use…

* A heart rate monitor, to measure Marks heart rate - this consists
of a belt and a transmitter belt. The belt is moistened so it can
read the heart rate easier, then it is placed around the chest.
The watch is fastened to the wrist where it picks up the heart
rate from the belt. You must make sure that you don't stand too
close to someone else using the belt because you may pick up their
signal.

* A tape measure, to work out how far he has to run. We will be
measuring in metres.

* A stop clock, to time how long it takes his heart rate to return
to normal, we will measure the time in minutes and seconds.

[IMAGE]

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To make this a fair test I am going to only use one variable and

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control all of the other variables, like the person doing the exercise
and the type of exercise and I am going to ask him to run at his
normal pace instead of jogging or sprinting. I am going to make sure I
use the same person each time because people come I all sorts of
shapes and sizes, so some people can run faster than others and some
people are fitter than others. Also I am going to make sure the person
tries to stay the same speed because sprinting needs more energy than
say, jogging so the heart rate will go up when some on is sprinting. I
am going to keep the type of exercise the same as well because on type
of exercise may need more energy than another so the heart rate will
be different.



PREDICTION
==========

I predict that further Mark runs the higher his heart rate will get
and the longer it will take for his heart rate to return to normal.
Because the further Mark runs the more oxygen his muscles need. This
is because when he is working hard his body needs more energy to keep
going. His body gets this energy from glucose and oxygen. The word
equation for this reaction is…

[IMAGE]GLUCOSE + OXYGEN CARBON + WATER + ENERGY

DIOXIDE

When he is resting he still needs to use his energy and use this
reaction but at a normal, lower rate. You do still need energy when
you are resting because of your involuntary muscles, such as the ones
in your stomach and you use muscles and energy to keep your posture
the same. So when he is working harder his body needs more energy
quicker, so his heart rate goes up because the oxygen, which comes
from the lungs and glucose, which comes from the intestines need to
get to the muscles so it travels in the blood. And when Mark works
harder the heart pumps the blood round the body quicker to get more
oxygen and glucose to the muscles.

The web site ''www.smm.org/heart/lesons/lesson1.htm'' says that ''
with exercise or physical activity, the heart rate increases to supply
the muscles with more oxygen to produce extra energy. The heart can
beat up to 200 times per minute with extreme exercise. The brain sends
nerve signals to the heart to control the rate. The body also produces
chemical hormones, such as adrenaline, which can change the heart
rate. When we are excited, scared, or anxious our heart gets a signal
to beat faster. During a fever, the heart beats faster to bring more
blood to the surface of the body to release heat and cool the body.
The heart rate increases during and after a meal to send more blood to
the digestive system. A trained athlete's heart can pump more blood
with each beat so his or her heart rate is slower. Likewise, an
athlete's recovery time is shorter.''

But when Mark has stopped working his heart rate will still be high
because he will need to pay back the oxygen debt. This is because at
some points when he is exercising he will respire without oxygen; this
is called anaerobic respiration, because he may not take in enough
oxygen for aerobic respiration. So when Mark has stopped working he
has to ''pay back'' his oxygen debt in order to break down the lactic
acid, which is the incomplete break down of glucose. Lactic acid
causes cramp in the muscles. The word equation for this reaction is…

[IMAGE]GLUCOSE ENERGY + LACTIC ACID

The further he runs the longer it will take for his heart rate to
return to normal because he would have had to work for longer so his
oxygen debt would be greater.


RESULTS
-------

Experiment 1, resting heart rate; 69

Distance (m)

Heart rate, during exercise (beats per min)

Recovery time (min/sec)

20

104

1:17

40

150

1:50

60

146

3:54

80

166

5:16

100

177

8:07

Experiment 2,resting heart rate; 85

Distance (m)

Heart rate, during exercise (beats per min)

Recovery time (min/sec)

20

120

1:50

40

126

2:03

60

153

1:48

80

165

5:16

100

167

4:12

Average of both experiments, resting heart rate; 77

Distance (m)

Heart rate during exercise (beats per min)

Recovery time (min/sec) and (sec)

20

122

1:34 / 94

40

138

1:77 / 137

60

150

2:51 / 171

80

166

5:16 / 310

100

172

6:10 / 370


CONCLUSION

From the graphs I can see that the longer the distance run the higher
Marks heart rate was and the recovery time was longer. From the heart
rate and distance graph I can see that the line of best fit runs up
diagonally in a steady slope. There is one odd result which, I have
circled this result may have been recorded wrong or may have just been
a fluke.

From the graph on recovery time and distance I can see that the
further Mark ran the longer the recovery time was. The line of best
fit runs up smoothly and evenly then slopes up more vertically.

From my results I can see that the effect of exercise on the heart
rate and recovery time is that as you do more exercise your heart rate
gets higher and you recovery time is greater. This is because when you
do exercise your body needs more oxygen and the more exercise you do
the more oxygen you need. This is because the harder you work the body
needs more energy to keep going. Your body gets this energy from
glucose and oxygen.

When you are resting you still need to use your energy but at a normal
lower rate. You need energy all the time even when resting because of
your involuntary muscles so when you work harder your body needs more
energy quicker, so your heart rate goes up because the oxygen, which
comes from the lungs and glucose which comes from the intestines need
to get to the muscles so it travels in the blood. And when you work
harder the heart pumps the blood round the body quicker to get more
oxygen and glucose to the muscles.

But when you stop working your heart rate will still be high because
you need to pay back the oxygen debt. This is because at some points
when you are exercising you will respire without oxygen; this is
called anaerobic respiration, because you may not take in enough
oxygen for aerobic respiration. So when you stop working you have to
''pay back'' this oxygen debt in order to break down the lactic acid,
which is the incomplete break down of glucose. Lactic acid causes
cramp in the muscles. The word equation for this reaction is…

[IMAGE]GLUCOSE ENERGY + LACTIC ACID

The further you run the longer it will take for your heart rate to
return to normal because you will have had to work for longer so your
oxygen debt would be greater.


EVALUATION

I used mark as my 'guinea pig' and I made him run different distances
20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 meters) changing the distance 5 times. I
recorded his heart rate straight after exercise and resting heart
rate, so I knew when his heart rate had returned to normal, and how
long it took him to recovery took the average of 2 sets of results. To
make sure my results were accurate I used a heart rate monitor instead
of finding out the heart rate manually. I used a stopwatch to record
the recovery time and a tape measure to record the distance.

On each graph there was one odd result this may have been a wrong
recording or a fluke. I think that the experiment was a success and
the results were reliable but to improve the final results we could
take a few more results and get a more accurate average result. I
think the results that I collected are sufficient to support a firm
conclusion. To extend the enquiry I could experiment how different
types of exercise effects the heart rate.
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