Investigating Temperature Change when Different Volumes of Acid and Alkali are Mixed

Investigating Temperature Change when Different Volumes of Acid and Alkali are Mixed

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Investigating Temperature Change when Different Volumes of Acid and Alkali are Mixed



Prediction
==========

My prediction is that the biggest temperature change will be when
there are equal amounts of H+ ions and OH-, this is because create an
optimum mixture for the ions to neutralise each other.



Apparatus
=========

v Empty plastic yoghurt cup

v thermometer

v Hydrochloric Acid

v Sodium Hydroxide

v Two measuring cylinders

[IMAGE]




Diagram
=======

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE] 30ml³ Hydrochloric acid

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE]Thermometer

[IMAGE][IMAGE] Measuring Cylinder

[IMAGE] Plastic cup

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




30ml³ Sodium

Hydroxide



Method
======

First of all we decided to use a plastic cup because it was easy to
wash off the mixture. We poured out 30ml of Hydrochloric acid in to
one measuring cylinder and poured 30ml of Sodium Hydroxide into the
other measuring cylinder. Then we added the Sodium Hydroxide to the
plastic cup and left it for 25-30 seconds, we then took the
temperature of the alkali before adding the acid. We then tipped the
Hydrochloric acid into the cup with the alkali. We stirred the cup for
25-30 seconds and then recorded the new temperature, and then we
washed out the mixture before doing the next experiment. We then tried
out different combinations- 40:20, 20:40, 15:45 and 45:15. Just to
make sure we had reliable results we carried out the experiment twice
and took an average from the two results.



Results Table
=============

1st Results

Chemicals + Measurements

Temperature

[IMAGE]30ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

30ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

26ºC

Rise

6ºC

[IMAGE]40ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

20ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

27ºC

Rise

7ºC

[IMAGE]20ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

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Related Searches


+

40ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

25ºC

Rise

5ºC

[IMAGE]45ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

15ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

26ºC

Rise

6ºC

[IMAGE]15ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

345ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

23ºC

Rise

3ºC

2nd Results

Chemicals + Measurements

Temperature

[IMAGE]30ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

30ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

25ºC

Rise

5ºC

[IMAGE]40ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

20ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

27ºC

Rise

7ºC

[IMAGE]20ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

40ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

24ºC

Rise

4ºC

[IMAGE]45ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

15ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

25ºC

Rise

5ºC

[IMAGE]15ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

345ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

23ºC

Rise

3ºC



Average Results
===============

Chemicals + Measurements

Temperature (to the nearest degree)

[IMAGE]30ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

30ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

26ºC

Rise

6ºC

[IMAGE]40ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

20ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

27ºC

Rise

7ºC

[IMAGE]20ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

40ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

24ºC

Rise

4ºC

[IMAGE]45ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

15ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

26ºC

Rise

6ºC

[IMAGE]15ml³ of Sodium Hydroxide

+

345ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid

Start

20ºC

End

23ºC

Rise

3ºC



Conclusion
==========

From my results I can conclude that the Hydrochloric acid was two
times as concentrated as the Sodium Hydroxide. The biggest temperature
rise was when there were 20ml³ of Hydrochloric Acid and 40ml³ of
Sodium Hydroxide because this creates the optimum mixture. From my
graph I can recognise that the Hydrochloric Acid was 2molar and the
Sodium Hydroxide was 1molar. Therefore the amount of H+ ions and OH-
ions would be equal, when there are equal amounts of the two different
ions they collide and neutralise with each other more, causing more
heat to be released and a bigger temperature rise to occur. This type
of experiment is also called an exothermic reaction.



Evaluation
==========

Overall I thought are experiment went according to plan and we had
accurate results. My results I received were good but I could improve
the experiment by, carrying out the experiment more times this would
improve the consistency of the results. Secondly I would put a lid
over the plastic cup to help hold in the heat longer this would make
the experiment more accurate. The final thing I would do is to conduct
a bigger variety of different mixtures to make the experiment more
precise e.g. 10:50, 35:25 and 25:35.

On my graph there were a couple of anomalous results I think this is
due to human error and some of the heat may have been lost during the
experiment.
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