The Effect of Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

The Effect of Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

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The Effect of Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

In this experiment I intent to investigate the effect of concentration
of hydrochloric acid on Sodium Thiosulphate. When mixed together,
these form a yellow precipitate. We are going to time the reaction
time for this experiment

[IMAGE]




Na2 S 2 O3 + 2HCl 2 NaCl + S + H2O + SO2

Equipment Needed

To do the experiment, I will need the following equipment:

· Hydrochloric Acid

· Sodium Thiosulphate

· White Paper square with 'X' marked upon it

· A conical flask

· Measuring cylinders

· Beaker

· Water

· Stopclock

Method

1. Beaker filled with Sodium thiosulphate

2. Hydrochloric Acid bottle fetched

3. Conical flask will then be placed upon white paper with x on it.

4. For each reading throughout the final experiment, 10cm3 of acid
will be used.

5. 40cm3 of thiosulphate is to be measured in a measuring cylinder for
the purposes of the first reading and 0cm3 of water will be measured

6. The thiosulphate (and water on the other occasions) will then be
poured into the conical flask

7. Then the acid will be added, and as soon as the acid has been
added, the timer starts

8. The timer stops when the designated viewer for this test can no
longer see the 'x' beneath the flask

9. The measuring cylinders will be washed out between tests

10. The used conical flask will be replaced each time with a fresh one

11. The amount of acid will remain constant throughout the experiment

12.The amount of thiosulphate will decrease by 5cm3 after each
reading, and the amount of water will increase by 5cm3 after each
reading

(eg (1=40 thio - 0 Water) (2=35 thio - 5 Water) and so forth until 10
thio - 30 water

Safety Precautions

Due to some of the hazardous materials used in this experiment, it has
been decided that the following safety protocols be observed:

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· Wear goggles

· Take care when pouring liquids out, especially Hydrochloric Acid

· If a spill occurs, immediately form the teacher observing the
experiment

Fair Test

Numerous precautions should be taken to ensure that the experiments
are conducted as fairly as can be done within reason. To do this we
will:

· A constant temperature in the room, to avoid the substances in use
from being heated and providing unreliable information

· Constant amount of acid, with water used to lower concentration

· Keep the person observing the reaction the same

Pre-Trial Test

To check if my chosen factor would affect the outcome if other
substances were used instead of sodium thiosulphate.

[IMAGE]Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2

(s) (aq) (aq) (g)

The pre-trial will entail:

1. The temperature will be constant throughout the test The acid will
stay at a set volume for the entirety of the test

2. The temperature will be constant throughout the test The magnesium
(2cm3) will stay at a set volume for the entirety of the test

3. The acid will stay at a set volume for the entirety of the test

4. The concentration will be the only thing that changes through the
experiment

5. To measure the speed of the reaction we will drop the magnesium
into a test tube of Hydrochloric Acid and time how long it is until
the water stops bubbling, and no more gas can be given off

The results are given in the table below

Acid (cm3)

Water

(cm3)

Time

(secs)

20

0

12

18

2

28

15

5

44

10

10

49

5

15

120

2

18

275

From this I have concluded that my factor will affect the outcome if
other substances were used which are not thiosulphate

Prediction and Scientific Theory

It is my firm belief that we will discover that the rate of the
reaction will increase with an increase of concentration, because an
increase in concentration means that there are more particles, and
therefore more collisions will occur between particles will occur. If
there are more collisions between the particles then the reaction will
take place quicker.

Surface Area also affects the speed of a reaction, as a larger surface
area means a larger area for potential collisions to occur in and so
as a result more collisions occur. This means that the rate of
reaction will increase and so the time taken for the cross to
disappear will become less.

A catalyst will also increase the rate of reaction as a catalyst
provides the activation energy for the reaction and so the reaction
can take place faster than it would under normal circumstances.

Trial

To ascertain if the method would give me accurate results, I conducted
a trial, which was not as the final experiment would be. The layout of
the experiment is shown below

[IMAGE]

The results for the trial are shown below.

Sodium Thiosulphate (cm3)

Hydrochloric Acid

(cm3)

Water

(cm3)

Time For 'X' to disappear

(sec)

30

5

10

55.91

25

5

15

57.91

20

5

20

79.38

15

5

25

105.41

10

5

30

159.16

I have therefore decided that the method, though it is accurate could
have some slight alterations to the method that can improve its
accuracy when collecting the results.



Analysis of Trial
=================

From my trial I have decided that the method, though it did give me
results showing the pattern I had expected, can be improved upon for
the final experiment in the following ways:

1. Take three readings, for each one, then take an average time from
the three

2. Replace the equipment after each reading, to avoid contamination of
others.

3. Assign each member of the group with a specific task, for example:
one person will measure the amounts of acid, thiosulphate and water
for the entire experiment

The Final Experiment

Sodium Thiosulphate

(cm3)

Hydrochloric

Acid

(cm3)

Water
(cm3)

Reading #1
(secs)

Reading #2

(secs)

Average

(secs)

40

10

0

27.16

28.62

27.89

35

10

5

31.47

32.34

31.91

30

10

10

35.06

38.35

36.71

25

10

15

42.75

46.56

44.66

20

10

20

49.63

69.50

59.565

15

10

25

72.31

94.22

83.365

10

10

30

97.82

151.43

124.65

We encountered no anomalous results, and therefore in my opinion, no
repeat experiment was needed.

Analysis

In this experiment I have found that as the concentration is increased
the time taken for the reaction to take place decreases. This means
the rate of reaction increases as it takes less time for a reaction to
take place, so more take place per second.

The graphs plotting rate against concentration have positive
correlation as the concentration is increased so does the rate of
reaction. Meaning they will collide more often and with more energy.
Particles with more energy are more likely to have sufficient
activation energy and thus react successfully, and when solutions of
reacting particles are made more concentrated there are more particles
to react with. Collisions between reacting particles are therefore
more likely to occur.

[IMAGE]This is because of collision theory: For a reaction to occur
particles have to collide with each other. Only a small percent result
in a reaction. This is due to the energy barrier to overcome. Only
particles with enough energy to overcome the barrier will react after
colliding. The minimum energy that a particle must have to overcome
the barrier is called the activation energy, or Ea. The size of this
activation energy is different for different reactions. If the
frequency of collisions is increased the rate of reaction will
increase. However the percent of successful collisions remains the
same. An increase in the frequency of collisions can be achieved by
increasing the concentration, pressure, or surface area. I found that
the results I collected proved the prediction I made to be true.

The graph clearly shows a curve of best fit, telling me that as the
concentration increased , the time taken for the 'X' to disappear
decreased. This has also confirmed my trial results as being accurate.

Evaluation

The Accuracy of the Experiment, How The Results Fit The Trend and Odd
Results

I believe that the experiment was very accurate, but was not as
accurate as it could have been, primarily due to human errors. Despite
this however, the results fit my expected trend, and they fitted
almost exactly forming the curve on the graph I expected. I
encountered no odd results, which is a very positive factor for the
accuracy of the method.

Comment on Method and Problems and How to Improve It

I found the experiment to be adequate in providing relatively accurate
results and I encountered no anomalous results, however, there are a
couple of problems in the method:

1. The measuring cylinders were only accurate to 0.3cm3

2. Human eyesight could have played a part in any measurement
misjudgements.

3. It is possible that the stopwatch was not started as soon as the
acid was added because of the human reaction time.

4. That some humans have better eyesight than others, which means that
some people will still see the cross while others cannot.

These problems could be solved by:

1. Use more accurate, electronic measuring cylinders.

2. Have a light sensitive monitor underneath the beaker instead of a
X.

3. Have the monitor linked up to a stopwatch so it stops when light is
no longer visible.

Further Work

I am intending to react a length of magnesium ribbon with a volume of
hydrochloric acid. I will measure the rate of reaction by collecting
the hydrogen gas that is produced in a gas syringe that will be
connected, via a piece of rubber tubing and a rubber bung to the
conical flask that the reaction will take place. I will quickly drop
the length of magnesium into the flask and attach the rubber bung to
it.

Reliability

It is my belief that the results I obtained are very reliable, though
there is not as many points on the graph as I would of liked to have,
but the points do conform very closely to a curve of best fit, which
is why I believe them to be reliable results. Not only this, but the
method is not complex, and it does not take long to do, so the
evidence is also easily repeatable.
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