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My aim is to view the effects of different temperatures on the rate of
respiration of yeast in a glucose solution. I will do this by
measuring the rate of which carbon dioxide is given off (CO2) by the
From previous experiments I have learnt several things about yeast and
enzymes. I have learnt that an enzyme is a natural catalyst,
(something that speeds up the experiment without altering the out
come.) Yeast is a fungus that is used in fermentation this is because
it respires anaerobically and aerobically, the anaerobic respiration
is the useful bit in fermentation as it produces ethanol (alcohol).
The sucrose solution that the yeast is put in is needed as energy so
that the enzymes in yeast can respire. The equation is:
[IMAGE]Glucose Carbon dioxide + Ethanol
From a similar experiment with amylase I have seen that a change in
temperature can drastically change the rate at which yeast respires.
This is because of a theory, which is called the "collision theory"
this says that when something is heated then it will move faster thus
there will be more collisions between the substrates and the enzyme
(glucose and the yeast).
The increase in temperature increases the efficiency of the enzymes up
to a point where they are at maximum efficiency this is about 40°C;
this is called the optimum temperature. After this point the enzymes
begin to denatured, this is where they are given so much kinetic
energy what the bonds break and this leads to the active site changing
This leads onto the lock and key theory that says that the substrate
and the enzyme fit together like a lock and key and when the active
site changes shape they cannot connect and so the reaction doesn't
The pH of the solution would alter the rate of the reaction if it was
changed therefore I must keep it constant, it will not change.
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alters the rate of reaction because when it is acidic H+ ions
interfere with the enzymes and their active site.
I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction
will increase. When a particular temperature is reached I believe the
rate of reaction will dramatically decrease. I believe this because
most chemical reaction happens faster when the temperature is higher.
At higher temperatures molecules mover around faster, which makes it
easier for them to react together. Usually, a rise of 10OC will double
the rate of reaction. This is true for enzymes up to about 40°C.
However at 40°C the enzyme begins to be denatured, where the active
site changes shape and so the substrate doesn't connect with the
enzyme (lock and key), so the reaction slows down. By around 60°C the
enzyme is completely denatured. The graph below shows the trend I
believe the results will follow:
I also predict that there will be no results after the temperature has
exceeded 70°C or before 20°C. this is due to a previous experiment
which was similar where there were no results at these temperatures
with another enzyme called amylase. I think that there will be no
results after 70°C because the active site of the enzyme in the yeast
has changed shape and therefore it doesn't connect with the substrate.
And therefore didn't react. Before 20°C I think that the collision
theory comes into affect, as the enzymes do not have enough kinetic
energy to collide with enough force to cause a reaction.
Information from preliminary work.
My preliminary work helped me fine-tune my plan of the experiment by
illustrating several key faults in the experiment. The first thing I
found out was what quantities of yeast and substrate (glucose
solution) to use in the experiment. First I decided to use 1 gram of
yeast then I had several different amounts of glucose solution. I
found that less that 15ml meant that there wasn't enough sugar for the
yeast in the 6 minutes of timing. And I found that with more than 15ml
then the froth from the reaction meant that some solution pasted up
the tube. I also found that the yeast required a period of time in
order to re-activate, I found that the best length of time was 5
minutes; I got a steady stream of bubbles after this length of time.
From my preliminary work I also found that by doing more than one
repeat I could get a more accurate result and at the same time I could
eliminate anonymous results. I have also seen that there is not enough
gas at temperatures below 20°C to measure with the syringes we have
been provided. I have also seen that temperatures above 70°C do not
change the amount of gas at all, there is none being produced. I have
found that it the temperature of the water bath goes down and
therefore the temperature of the solution is going down. I am going to
have to add hot water from the water bath to keep the temperature the
same through out the time; re-activation time and timing time.
I managed to make a table of the results from the preliminary work:
Volume of CO2 per 2 minute interval/
Range of conditions
I have chosen the range of 20°C to 70°C as I have seen from my
preliminary work that temperatures either side of this band are of no
use to the experiment.
List of variables and how they are going to be controlled
1. Independent. The only variable I am going to change is the
temperature of the water, hopefully in, 10°C intervals. By changing
the temperature of the water bath of which the boiling tube is placed
2. Dependant. I will measure the volume of gas that is produced by
the reaction of the yeast and the glucose in a syringe. I will
measure it in cm3 / 2 minute interval. The syringe is placed under
water so that the CO2 pushes the water out of it and this gives us
an accurate reading of CO2 produced by the reaction. To stop any
gas escaping a Hoffman clamp is placed on the end of a rubber tube
attached to the syringe.
3. Fixed. The variables I will have to keep the same are the
concentration of substrate ([S]) and the concentration of enzymes
([E]). This is so that there is not an unfair test. If there was a
higher concentration of enzymes there would be more likeliness of
a collision and so there would be a larger amount of gas produced;
thus the mass of yeast will have to remain constant to keep it a
fair test. Similarly due to the collision theory there will be
more collisions and so the reaction will go faster, if there is
more glucose in the solution. I will also have to keep the room
temperature around the same in order to make it a fair test. The
temperature of the water bath must also stay the same or else the
temperature of the solution will decrease and so making it an
Number of repeats.
I will repeat my experiment 3 times at each of my 10°C intervals
(20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C) this is so that I avoid any
anomalous results and it increases the accuracy of my experiment. The
repeats I will do will be at 2-minute intervals after a re-activation
period, 1 at 2 minutes, 4 minutes and 6 minutes. It would be even more
accurate if I could do more than 3 times but there isn't enough time
to do this.
List of apparatus
Ø I measured out 1 gram of yeast and placed it in a boiling tube.
Ø I got a large beaker and filled it with water to the temperature I
wanted the glucose solution to be.
Ø I collected the glucose solution in a syringe (15ml); it had already
been heated in a water bath before hand.
Ø I filled another syringe with water in a basin of water and attached
a Hoffman clip to a rubber tube coming from the syringe, to avoid any
gas from leaving.
Ø I added the glucose to the yeast and left it to re-active, till a
steady stream of bubbles came out of the delivery tube, attached to
the boiling tube.
Ø Then I put the delivery tube so that the bubbles of CO2 went into
the syringe of water, and so pushing the water out and measuring the
amount of CO2 produce.
Ø I timed 2 minute and recorded the amount of CO2 produced. I did this
Ø I then did it at the other temperatures and repeated the method as
Ø I recorded my results in a table of results.
Before starting there are a few safety aspects, which I have to be
careful of. Firstly I need to be careful of the water, as some of it
is very hot.
A table to show the results from an experiment into the effect of
temperature on the rate of reaction of yeast.
Volume of Carbon dioxide per 2 minutes
Repeat of anomalous
All anomalous results were repeated and not used in working out the
average amount of carbon dioxide given off per 2-minute interval. The
anomalous results are highlighted in the table in red. The figures in
the average column are to 1 significant figure.