The Effect of Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

The Effect of Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

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The Effect of Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

Aim: My Aim is to see how concentration of acid will affect the time
it takes for Sodium Thiosulphate to become cloudy and make a cross
below it to disappear.

Method:

Apparatus

Hydrochloric Acid

Sodium Thiosulphate

Distilled Water

250cm ³ Beaker- I need a beaker big enough to see the cross and
although the 100cm³ would be perfect volume wise I would prefer to use
a bigger one so I can fit the cross under it and also be able to pour
the reactants into it without any spillage

100cm ³ Measuring Cylinder- I have decided to use this cylinder for
the Sodium Thiosulphate. I am only using 50cm ³ each time but I would
prefer to use one in which I only have to measure to half way as
opposed to using a 50cm ³ Measuring Cylinder and having to measure it
right to the top. It will be easier to measure

10cm ³ Measuring Cylinder- This is the smallest Measuring Cylinder
available. I will use this to measure out the Hydrochloric acid and
Distilled water because there volume together will equal 10cm³. If I
use a 50cm³ Measuring cylinder, I won't be able to get a good enough
accuracy.

Stopwatch- For timing the experiment

Pipette for measuring out accurately and piping back excess
Hydrochloric acid

Piece of paper with a black cross on it like this: To find out when
the experiment has ended. It is dark and thick because I want to
clearly see when the experiment has finished

Paper towels: For washing beakers and measuring cylinders out.

[IMAGE]



1.

2. Put the black cross underneath the 250cm ³ Beaker, leave this on
the side.

3. Measure out 50cm ³ of Sodium Thiosulphate in the 100cm ³
Measuring cylinder and pour into the 250cm ³ beaker

4. In the other 100cm ³ measuring cylinder.

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Related Searches

The volume of
Hydrochloric acid +volume of distilled water add up to 10cm ³.
Here is a table

5. Put the black cross underneath the 250cm ³ Beaker, leave this on
the side.

6. Measure out 50cm ³ of Sodium Thiosulphate in the 100cm ³
Measuring cylinder and pour into the 250cm ³ beaker

7. In the other 100cm ³ measuring cylinder. The volume of
Hydrochloric acid +volume of distilled water add up to 10cm ³.
Here is a table

Volume of acid

Volume of Distilled water to make it up to 10cm ³

10cm ³

0cm ³

8cm ³

2cm ³

6cm ³

4cm ³

4cm ³

6cm ³

2cm ³

8cm

From my pilot

I have based my prediction on my pilot experiment. The reason I have
mentioned giving the 250cm ³ beaker a thorough washing is because in
my pilot one of my results became irregular. The reason this was like
this is because in the pilot we were just testing and didn't consider
that washing out the beaker thoroughly we only gave it a quick rinse
and we couldn't have rinsed it out properly because one of the
experiments was a lot quicker than the other ones. From this I have
learned that even a little bit of solution left in the beaker from the
last experiment will ruin it so I will need to take extra precaution
to make sure the beaker is clean as has no solution left at the
bottom. This leads me to think that the more acid you have in the
solution the quicker it will be. Also having not cleaned it up
properly will mean that I can not efficiently measure concentration
because it will change with the few cm³ left. So I must pay a lot of
attention to cleaning them out properly because it will ruin the
concentration and the results if I don't. One problem with using such
a little amount of acid to change by each time is that I will have to
be very careful about washing them out

If I had an infinite amount of time I would use separate beakers for
each experiment but because I am doing each one three times I don't
think the equipment will be available to me so I will just have to be
very cautious.

.In my pilot I used higher quantities of acid but I discovered that
doing this is a waste of time and wasteful because you can make the
concentration differ however much acid and water you choose to vary. I
used high amount of acids but then discovered the overall solution had
the same concentration so I have been less wasteful. One bad points is
that I will have to be very careful with measuring out

My results on the whole are what are incorporated into my prediction.
Also in my pilot I decided not to stir the solution because the more
you stir the more energy you give the particles and I couldn't
guarantee that I could give the particles the same amount of energy
each time and still can't so I am just going to leave stirring the
solution alone

Prediction

I predict the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the
quicker the experiment will take to go cloudy with the Sodium
thiosulphate, this is due to the collision theory. The collision
theory states the more of a certain particle you have in an area the
more collision you are going to get with another particle. For
example: If you had 4cm ³ of Water, 6cm ³ of Hydrochloric acid and
50cm ³ of Sodium Thiosulphate there is a higher concentration as
opposed to 4cm ³ of Hydrochloric acid and 6cm ³ of water because all
the water is doing is making sure that the volume remains the same
each time therefore there is going to be a higher collision. In a
solution where there is a lot of acid in it there is more chance of a
Hydrochloric acid particle hitting a Sodium Thiosulphate one.

HCL (Cubic Centimetres)

Water

(Cubic Centimetres)

Thiosulphate(Cubic Centimetres )

Concentration of Hydrochloric acid in solution

10cm³

0cm³

50cm³

16.6%

8cm³

2cm³

50cm³

13.3%

6cm³

4cm³

50cm³

10%

4cm³

6cm³

50cm³

6.6%

2cm³

2cm³

50cm³

3.3%

Unlike an enzyme, Hydrochloric acid once it has reacted, it has been
used up where as an enzyme can carry on working after it has broken
down a certain particle. From this I expect the reactions to start off
fairly fast but slow down towards the end because there will be fewer
Sodium Thiosulphate particles and fewer Hydrochloric acid particles
and therefore the rate of reaction will slow down. Although you can
visibly see this it would be quite difficult to record the rate of
reaction accurately within the classroom.

When the solution is going creamy, solid particles of sulphur are
forming. Increasing the amount of acid means that the Sodium
Thiosulphate will be quicker to turn the solution white, this is
because the Sodium Thiosulphate is where the sulphur comes from. I
predict if you had the Hydrochloric acid constantly the same and the
concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate changing each time that you would
produce more solid particles of sulphur because there is more sulphur
available in the reaction. It would depend how much Hydrochloric acid
you where using.

Word Equation

[IMAGE]Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid Sodium Thiosulphate+
Sulphur Dioxide+ Water

Balanced Chemical Equation

[IMAGE] Na2S2O3 + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + S (s) + SO2 (g)



Aq means aqueous solution

L means Liquid

G means gas

S means solid

Another aspect I will predict if an acid is twice as concentrated as
another then it will be twice as quick. Going back to the theory of
collision, if the acid is more concentrate then there is going to be
more acid molecules and therefore there is going to be more frequent
and more collisions.

Graphs

Speed of reaction α for time for reaction to finish





This means the speed of reaction is inversely proportional to the time
for the reaction to finish. This means as the speed of the reaction
increases the time for the reaction to finish goes down. This is
called Inversely Proportional

Speed of reaction α 1/Time

This is proportional because as one goes up so does the other one. It
will be much easier to plot a graph like this. It will be more
accurate to show the rate of reaction over just speed.

Results Table

I have set my results out in three tables. This makes it easy to refer
to my results. On each table I have written the Volume of acid in cm³
, Volume of water in cm³, Time taken in seconds. Rate of Reaction
(1/Time) rounded to 3 decimal places and percentage decrease from
result before which is rounded to 1 decimal place.

Regardless to say each result is the reaction between the
concentration of Hydrochloric acid and 50cm³ of Sodium Thiosulphate.
The Red result indicates were I restarted the experiment because I did
it over 2 lessons.

Results Table 1

Volume of Hydrochloric acid (cm³)

Volume of Distilled Water (cm³)

Time taken for cross to disappear

(seconds)

Rate of Reaction rounded to 3 decimal places

Percentage decrease rate from last result rounded to 1 decimal place

10cm³

-

28.74

0.035

-

8cm³

2cm³

29.94

0.032

5.7%

6cm³

4cm³

33.54

0.030

9.1%

4cm³

6cm³

36.75

0.027

10%

2cm³

8cm³

47.19

0.021

23.3%

Results Table 2

Volume of Hydrochloric acid (cm³)

Volume of Distilled Water (cm³)

Time taken for cross to disappear

(seconds)

Rate of Reaction rounded to 3 decimal places

Percentage decrease rate from last result rounded to 1 decimal place

10cm³

-

26.87

0.037

-

8cm³

2cm³

31.31

0.032

13.5%

6cm³

4cm³

38.13

0.026

18.8%

4cm³

6cm³

39.48

0.025

3.85%

2cm³

8cm³

50.57

0.020

20%

Results Table 3

Volume of Hydrochloric acid (cm³)

Volume of Distilled Water (cm³)

Time taken for cross to disappear

(seconds)

Rate of Reaction rounded to 3 decimal places

Percentage decrease rate from last result rounded to 1 decimal place

10cm³

-

28.47

0.035

-

8cm³

2cm³

31.34

0.032

9.3%

6cm³

4cm³

55.19

0.018

43.8%

4cm³

6cm³

62.19

0.016

11%

2cm³

8cm³

66.88

0.014

12.5%

Average Results Table

Volume of Hydrochloric acid (cm³)

Volume of Distilled Water (cm³)

Average taken for cross to disappear to 2 decimal places

(seconds)

Average Rate of Reaction

Percentage decrease worked out from data on this table.

10cm³

-

28.03

0.036

-

8cm³

2cm³

30.86

0.032

11.1%

6cm³

4cm³

42.29

0.025

21.9%

4cm³

6cm³

46.14

0.023

8%

2cm³

8cm³

54.88

0.018

21.7%

Analysis

As my line of best fit on my graph shows three of my results fit
through the line of best fit and the other two don't. This is because
I did my experiments over two lessons. When I restarted my experiment
in the next lesson ( I have shown this on my results table by making
that particular result red) the results changed dramatically to the
other two experiments. In the first experiment as I predicted the 8cm³
of Hydrochloric acid against the 2cm³ of Water reacting with the
Sodium Thiosulphate had almost double the rate of reaction to the 4cm
³ of Hydrochloric acid against the 6cm³ of Water reacting with the
Sodium Thiosulphate, the margin was 1.6%, this is what I expected. The
theory is double the concentration, double the speed. Halve the
concentration and halve the speed etc.

In the second set of experiments it changed and the percentages went
wrong I was expecting the results to be the same as the first one but
they weren't. Instead of a 1.6% margin between the rates of reaction
between the two experiments involving 8cm³ and 4cm³ I got a 5.6%
margin which means that I did something wrong. The result before the
experiment involving 4cm³ of Hydrochloric acid really is the reason
that percentage came out unexpectedly.

On the third set of results this point is emphasised. The third
experiment seems to change the result so they become less like I
expected. The margin is over 20% which is extremely inaccurate. On the
third sets of results though I did restart my experiments from the
last lesson and the part in which the percentage changes dramatically
(third experiment) is the one I restarted on.

My graph does show these anomalies well. As I have been saying the
experiments seem to change at the third result and my graph shows this
because the first two points (10cm³ Hydrochloric acid: 0cm³ of
distilled water and the 8cm³ Hydrochloric acid : 2cm³ of distilled
water don't fit the line but the other three results do. This is
because each time the result have been changing at the third result
and staying regular for the last two so the line is only going to go
through those three. The anomalies are quite a far way off the line of
best fit- I think doing the entire set of three experiments over two
lessons didn't help.

[IMAGE][IMAGE]Although saying this my graph does show the
proportionality well (α 1/Time). This proves that I have actually
found the rate of reaction over just speed. If it had been inverse
proportionality then it would just be a standard graph which doesn't
show rate of rate of reaction the line would have been like and not
like If I had done the concentrations starting with the lowest making
my way along it would have looked like the rate of reaction increased.

I can't really think why it was just the third result which changes
the experiment. The third set of experiment really shows that the
third result drastically changes the result. There is a various amount
of reasons why this may have happened. My results do show the
collision theory (that more particles in a certain area the more
collision you are going to get but just not very accurately) there
were no disaster results so this shows that my results are not totally
wrong.

From this I can conclude that my results show that the rate of
reaction increases with the increase in concentration. This idea
supports my prediction because this is what I said as a general rule.
However it only partially supports my idea that double the
concentration, double the speed which I thought wouldn't just
partially support my results but fully with a small margin. It also
shows the rate of reaction over just speed because you can see the
proportionality which I said it would.

Evaluation

The results I have got do not fully support by conclusion. It supports
my prediction because the graphs shows the basic idea of the higher
the concentration of acid the quicker the reaction but however it
doesn't back fully the idea of double the concentration, double the
speed of the reaction. There could be various reasons why this was so
but I would have to redo the experiments again but I can't account for
the anomalies so really for accuracy I would have to do the
experiments all again.

The main reason for the results being as they are is probably because
I had a time limit in which to do the experiment which was two
lessons. In this time I would have used two different beakers which
would vary the level of cleanliness of the beaker and therefore vary
the result.

I can't think of a reason specifically that the third result came out
strange in the last two experiments. It may have been because it was
harder to measure out smaller amounts of acid but from that point the
results seemed alright. Maybe it is the first two results which are
wrong, I don't know and because I don't know that means that I can't
say any of my conclusion is correct, so therefore I would have to do
my experiments again. These are the ideals I would have

1. Sterilized beakers (by heating)- So the beakers are equally clean
each time. The reason I couldn't sterilize them within the classroom
is because the option wasn't available to me. This would means that I
wasn't left with a little bit of the product each time.

OR

2. Different beakers for each experiment- I would prefer to use the
above method because you are going to get the same level of
cleanliness each time with this you couldn't guarantee that

3. Each experiment done 5 times instead of three- So the averages
would be fairer and the graph would most probably be more accurate

7. All the experiment done within the space of one lesson- So that I
can work at the same level. I maybe more tired another lesson etc.
There maybe other reasons why but I think I would prefer it like
this

As I have said my conclusion states -my results don't fully support my
prediction therefore it is not right to draw up a conclusion and
because the results in the three tables vary so much , that I would
have to do the results at least another 2 or 3 times or ideally 5
times so that I can have fully accurate results, averages and graphs
so I would then be able to draw a fully accurate conclusion up.
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