Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Salt Solution On The Mass Of Potato Chips

Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Salt Solution On The Mass Of Potato Chips

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Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Salt Solution On The Mass Of Potato Chips

Aim:

The aim of this investigation is to see whether the amount of salt
solution affects the mass of the potato chip

Hypothesis:

In the solution below, water will diffuse from the dilute solution
into the concentrated solution through the process of osmosis.
Therefore the dilute solution level will fall and the concentrated
level will rise

Line Callout 2: Disapproved (is unable to go through the semi permeable membrane O
Line Callout 2: Approved (is able to go through the semi permeable membrane P

Salt solution

Water

[IMAGE]

When a substance such as salt dissolves in water, the substance's
molecules stick with some of the water molecules, so the concentration
of the water molecules decreases. When the water molecules are the
same concentration on both sides of a semi permeable membrane and salt
is dissolved into one of them, osmosis will occur as shown in the
diagram below.

Semi permeable membrane

[IMAGE]Water molecules Salt molecules

[IMAGE]


Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semi permeable
membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low
water concentration.

My prediction in this investigation is that the solution with the
least salt will make the potato weigh more, thus the potato in the
distilled water solution will weigh the heaviest, because there will
be a higher concentration of water molecules in the distilled water
than inside the potato cylinder. Therefore, water will move in from
high concentration to low concentration this will increase the mass. I
based my prediction on the process of osmosis, which is a special type
of diffusion. It occurs across a permeable membrane, which allows some
particles to diffuse through it and not others. Most cell membranes
are like that, being permeable to water and some solutes only. Osmosis
is therefore the diffusion of water through a partially permeable
membrane. The basic principles of diffusion apply here.

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However, the
direction and rate of osmosis depends on the difference in water
concentration between the two sides of the membrane. Water will
continue to move into an area of lower water concentration until the
two concentrations are equal (and equilibrium is reacted). One of the
places osmosis takes place is in plants. Osmosis makes plant cells
swell up if they're surrounded by weak solution and they become
turgid. This is really useful for giving support to green plant tissue
and for opening stomata guard cells. Animal cells don't have a cell
wall and can easily burst if put into pure water because they take in
so much water by osmosis.

Fair Testing:

*I will make this a fair test by keeping the amount of molar solution
containing sodium chloride the same.

*I will make sure the lengths of the potatoes are the same by
measuring them with a ruler.

*To keep the mass of the potato consistent I will make a range; if the
mass of a certain potato is not within that range it will be rejected.

*Putting the potatoes in the molar solutions at 2 minute intervals
would mean I'd be able to take them out at 2 minute intervals. This
would allow all of the potatoes to stay in the solution for the same
consistent time.

Diagram/

Apparatus:

Test tube, electronic scales, paper towel, cork borer pipette scalpel,
white tile, measuring cylinder and potatoes.

Safety Precautions

Be extremely careful whilst using the scalpel and cork borer by paying
a attention to what you are cutting and wear goggles at all times.

Method:

*I collected all the equipment necessary and also two medium sized
potatoes. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 2.5 of molar solutions containing sodium
chloride and also distilled water (0.0)

*I added 100ml of each solution into a measuring cylinder then into
the measuring beaker.

*I then cut the potatoes into round cylindrical shapes then cut them
into 4cm; also cutting off the skin of the potato this would eliminate
the investigation being biased, as all the potatoes would have been
the same size and none of them would have had the skin.

*I then weighed one potato and multiplied it by 3 so it would give me
the equivalent mass of three cylindrical shaped potatoes.

*Next I put 3 identical potato chips into the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 2.5
of molar solutions containing sodium chloride and also distilled water
(0.0); at 2 minute intervals.

*This would make it a fair test by putting them in intervals so I
would be able to take them out at 2 minute intervals so there would be
no anomalies. I had left the potato chips in the solutions for a total
of 40 minutes

*Once I had taken out the potatoes from the solutions I weighed them
straight away. I repeated this process for every molar solution.

Results:

Concentration Of Molar Solution

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Original Mass

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

9.10

Mass After Being Soaked In

Molar Solution

9.11

7.05

6.88

6.77

6.65

6.44

% Mass Change

0.11

-22.53

-24.40

-25.60

-26.92

-29.23

(Graph On Page Six)

Analysis Of Results:

From analysing my results I feel they are accurate with the exception
of the first result as this should have gained more mass then shown,
this maybe caused by human error or I did not leave it in the
distilled water for long enough. There is a rapid decline from the
first solution (0.0 the distilled water) to the next (0.5
concentration of molar solution containing sodium chloride) this is
because the first one did not contain any sodium chloride it just had
distilled water so the action just had more emphasis on the scatter
graph. From 0.5-2.5 molar solutions there was not much difference in
the mass but a strong negative correlation is shown which proves the
investigation was a success.

Conclusion:

My hypothesis was correct as it says that 'the solution with the least
salt will make the potato weigh more, thus the potato in the distilled
water solution will weigh the heaviest, because there will be a higher
concentration of water molecules in the distilled water than inside
the potato cylinder. Therefore, water will move in from high
concentration to low concentration this will increase the mass of the
potato.

Evaluation:

To make this more of a fair test I should not have guesstimated that
all the chips would be the same mass I should have weighed three
together giving me a grand total, which I would have recorded; this
may have made my results more accurate. Another way I could have made
my results more accurate is by doing the test three times this would
have widen my results and sum mishaps that I encountered; (such as the
first set of results the mass before and after being put in the molar
solution) in the investigation would have been rectified. The
temperature in the science laboratory could have affected my results
so I kept referring back to the temperature through out the
investigation and it was 210C for the whole duration of the lesson.



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