Displacement Reaction

Displacement Reaction

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Displacement Reaction

The aim of my experiment is to find out what happens to the heat of
the zinc and copper sulphate solution when one of the variables is
changed.

Key variables:

§ amount of copper sulphate solution

§ amount of zinc

I am going to investigate what happens to the temperature of the zinc
and copper sulphate solution as the amount of zinc is increased. The
equation to show this reaction is:

Zn + CuSO4 ® ZnSO4 + Cu

The enthalpy change for the reaction is:

²H = -217kJ mole ¹

This means that if 1 mole of solution is used of each substance, the
heat given off will be 217,000 Joules.

Apparatus:

§ 1 test tube

§ 20ml of copper sulphate solution for each experiment

§ Zinc

§ Rubber bung

§ Thermometer

Prediction:

I think that as the amount of zinc is increased, the temperature of
the solution will also increase. I have used the following formula to
predict some results of this experiment.

q = Q

mc

where q = temperature rise, Q = quantity of heat, m = mass of solution
(20g) and c = the specific heat capacity of water which = 4.18Jg ¹K ¹.

65g Zinc ® 217000 joules

1g Zinc ® 217000 = 3338 joules

65

Therefore for 1g of zinc:

3338 =39°c rise

20x4.18

I can now use this formula proportionately to predict results for my
investigation.

For 0.3g of zinc:

0.3 x 39 = 12°c rise

For 0.5g of zinc:

0.5 x 39 = 19.5°c rise

For 0.7g of zinc:

0.7 x 39 = 27.3°c rise

For 0.9g of zinc:

0.9 x 39 = 35.1°c rise

I have used this information in order to predict the results of the
temperature rise I expect to see as the amount of zinc is increased. I
have also used this information to plan my experiment.

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As room
temperature is approximately 24°c, if there is a 35°c increase in the
temperature this would cause the temperature of the test tube with the
solution in to become approximately 60°c which is the maximum
temperature a human hand can hold without being burnt. Therefore, I
will only investigate the temperature increase with amounts of zinc
less than 1g.

Fair test:

In order to keep this a fair test I will keep the amount of copper
sulphate solution constant at 20ml each time and I will measure the
zinc accurately.

Observations:

[IMAGE]

A graph to show the relationship between the amount of zinc and the
heat given off in the reaction between the zinc and the copper
sulphate solution.

[IMAGE]

For additional graph see graph paper

Analysis:

From my graph you can see that as the amount of zinc increases so does
the temperature. My results follow the same pattern as my prediction
although there is a distinct difference.

Temperature rise from predicted results:

Amount of zinc (g)

Temperature rise (°c)

0.3

12.0

0.5

19.5

0.7

27.3

0.9

35.1

Temperature rise from actual results:

Amount of zinc (g)

Temperature rise (°c)

0.3

9.0

0.5

16.0

0.7

17.0

0.9

23.6

This difference between the predicted and actual results is due to the
fact that heat would have escaped, in the actual experiment, due to
the lack of insulation preventing this.

This is an exothermic reaction, which means that energy is given out
when the substances react and this goes into the water, therefore
causing it to heat up. This means that the bonding in the products is
stronger than the bonding in the reactants. The formation of zinc ions
in solution releases more energy than the formation of copper ions in
solution. Therefore, if the copper ions are replaced with zinc ions
the process is exothermic. So, as the concentration is increased, i.e.
more zinc is added, more particles are added, so more will be reacting
so more energy will be released therefore giving off more heat as the
amount of zinc is increased.

Evaluation:

My experiment was quite successful and my results are fairly reliable.
However, I did have a problem with the amount of heat lost during the
experiment. In order to overcome this I would have to use some sort of
insulation to prevent the heat loss and to ensure that my results are
more reliable and fit my prediction better. Also, if I were to repeat
this experiment, I would use a wider range of amounts of zinc in order
to see how precise my prediction was and to see if the further results
also fit my prediction. However, in order to do this protective gloves
would have to be worn in order to prevent burns from the high
temperatures released during the experiment.
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