Heating Foods and Its Effect on Amoutn of Vitamin C

Heating Foods and Its Effect on Amoutn of Vitamin C

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Heating Foods and Its Effect on Amoutn of Vitamin C


Aim


The aim of the experiment is to investigate how much Vitamin C /
Ascorbic Acid is destroyed when Orange juice is heated at 80°C for
different lengths of time.



Introduction
============



Certain foods contain high concentrations of Vitamin C. When these
foods are heated their ascorbic acid content decreases, this is a
non-reversible reaction.
==================================================================

During the sterilisation process foods are heated and Vitamin C is
destroyed. In order to maintain the initial concentration, Ascorbic
Acid is added.

[IMAGE]

DCPIP (dichlorophenol-indophenol solution) is a dark blue indicator
that turns colourless when a certain amount of Ascorbic Acid is
detected.

The experiment is to determine the concentration of ascorbic acid
present in five different solutions of orange juice, each of which has
been pre-treated in a different manor as specified in table 1:

Table 1


Solution number

Pre treatment conditions

1

Heated at 80°C for 1 minute

2

Heated at 80°C for 2 minutes

3

Heated at 80°C for 3 minutes

4

Heated at 80°C for 4 minutes

5

Heated at 80°C for 5 minutes


Fair Testing
------------

* The temperature of a substance affects the rate at which it reacts
with another. This is because the molecules have more kinetic
energy making them react faster. Therefore each test-tube of
orange juice must be cooled to the same temperature (probably room
temperature) before they are tested for their ascorbic acid
content, otherwise the results will be inaccurate.

* Using the same carton of orange juice should ensure that the Molar
strength of each test solution is the same.

* If a stopwatch is used instead of a standard watch to time the 1 -

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5 minutes in which the solutions are exposed to the water bath the
results may be slightly more accurate.

* Use the same DCPIP each time.

* Use same water bath, to ensure temperature is the same each time.

Prediction

My prediction is that the longer the Orange juice is heated for, at a
set temperature the more Vitamin C/ Ascorbic Acid will be destroyed.
Therefore the longer it is heated for, the more Orange juice there
will have to be put into the DCPIP to turn it colourless.

Equipment

* 1 water bath (set at 80°C)

* 1 glass pipette

* 1 pipette filler

* 5 x's 2 mls of DCPIP

* 5 x's 10 mls of Orange Juice

* 10 test-tubes

* 2 test-tube racks

* 1 stopwatch

* 1 thermometer


Diagram
-------


Method
------

* Assemble equipment as shown in diagram.

* Measure orange solutions and DCPIP with glass pipette and pipette
filler. (See equipment list for measurements).

* Pour 10mls of Orange juice in to five of the test tubes. Place
them in one of the test tube racks.

* Pour 2mls of DCPIP into five of the test tubes and place them in a
second test-tube rack.

* Place the five test tubes containing the source of Vitamin C into
the water bath (set at 80°) and start the stopwatch.

* Remove one of the test tubes after 1 minute, another after 2, 3, 4
and 5.

* Label the solutions 1 - 5 (1 being one minute and 5 being five
minutes.)

* Leave the orange solutions to cool down to room temperature.

* Fill the glass pipette up with solution one by using the pipette
filler.

* Slowly add the orange juice to one of the test tubes containing
DCPIP until it goes colourless.

* Record the volume of orange juice added in millilitres.

* Repeat this method 2 more times. Using the same equipment for
multiple results.

Results

Table 2

Solution Number

Heating time @ 80°C (Minutes)

Results 1: Amount of Orange juice added to DCPIP.

(Millilitres)

Results 2: Amount of Orange juice added to DCPIP.

(Millilitres)

Results 3: Amount of Orange juice added to DCPIP.

(Millilitres)

1

1

0.38

0.14

0.34

2

2

0.38

0.18

0.38

3

3

0.4

0.16

0.43

4

4

0.42

0.24

0.44

5

5

0.46

0.28

0.51

The results in table 2 show that as the heating time is increased the
more Orange Juice has to be added to the DCPIP to make it go
colourless.


Graphs
------

Graph 1

Graph to show the amounts of Orange Juice (heated at 80°C for 1 - 5
minutes) added to 2mls of DCPIP to turn it colourless.

Graph 2

Graph to show the average amounts of Orange Juice (heated at 80°C for
1 - 5 minutes) added to 2mls of DCPIP to turn it colourless.
(Excluding results 2 and anomalies)

Table 3

Solution Number

Results 1

Results 2

Results 3

Average

1

0.38

0.14

0.34

0.36

2

0.38

0.18

0.38

0.38

3

0.4

0.16

0.43

0.4

4

0.42

0.24

0.44

0.42

5

0.46

0.28

0.51

0.485

Key

Orange = Anomalous result

Red = Anomalous set of results

Blue = Results to be used for averages

Conclusion

My conclusion is that firstly I was correct in my prediction that the
longer the orange juice is heated for, the more Vitamin C is destroyed
and therefore the more orange has to be added to the DCPIP to turn it
colourless.

Evaluation

I had some anomalous results, set 2 was totally different to set 1 and
3 and some points didn't fit the smooth curves. These anomalies can be
explained in many ways:

1. Human Error: Maybe the amount of DCPIP we used was greater or less
than the set amount of 2mls. Human error with the stopwatch could have
affected our results too.

2. The solutions of Orange juice may have not cooled to the same
temperature in all three tests.



3. Because it was hard to obtain orange juice from the same carton
each time the experiment was carried out, the concentration of the
ascorbic acid may have been weaker or stronger each time.




If the investigation were carried out again I would take more than
three sets of results because this would give me a more accurate
average. I would make sure I used Orange juice from the same carton
each time and that my DCPIP was not contaminated with any orange juice
used by previous individuals. I would ensure that the solutions cooled
down to the exact same temperature and that the volumes used of DCPIP
and Orange Juice were recorded and measured accurately.

Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid

The results that I gained showed me how much Orange juice after being
heated for 1-5 minutes was needed to turn 2mls of DCPIP colourless.
However they didn't tell me the concentration of the Ascorbic Acid
content left after the heating process. If we refer to Graph 3 the
concentration content in each solution can be gained.

Graph 3

[IMAGE]

To gain the concentration of a solution after being heated, multiply
the amount of Orange juice added to the DCPIP to turn it colour less
by 100. This has to be don e because the line of the graph does not
continue as far down as e.g. 0.38.

Next read off 38 on the y-axis and follow along the x until you reach
the line. Continue downwards along the y-axis and read off the value
of the x.

Divide the value of x by 100 and this will give you the concentration
of the Ascorbic Acid content in 1/1000M.

Divide the result by 1000 and this will give the concentration in
Molar units.

E.g.

Solution Number

Results Set

Amount of Orange used.

Concentration

1

1

0.38 mls

0.000001 M
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