Sodium Thiosulphate's Effect on the Rate of Reaction with Hydrochloric Acid

Sodium Thiosulphate's Effect on the Rate of Reaction with Hydrochloric Acid

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Sodium Thiosulphate's Effect on the Rate of Reaction with Hydrochloric Acid Aim:

I am going to investigate how varying the concentration of Sodium
Thiosulphate affects the rate of reaction with Hydrochloric Acid.

Prediction:

The equation for the reaction is:

[IMAGE]


Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water +
Sulphur + Sulphur dioxide

[IMAGE]


Or: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl S + 2NaCl + H2O + SO2

This reaction has a definite end point (when the cross on the test
tube 'disappears'). The faster the cross 'disappears' the faster the
reaction and by timing how long this takes we can establish the rate
of reaction.

There are various factors affecting the rate of reaction that we need
to take into consideration, these are:

b Temperature - I will conduct all the tests at room temperature
(hopefully on the same day) because temperature has an effect on the
rate of the reaction.

b Shaking or stirring - I will try to keep jogging of the solutions to
a minimum so as not to alter the rate of reaction.

b Catalysts speed up reactions.

I predict that the greater the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate
(hypo) in the solution the faster the chemical reaction will take
place. Therefore, the cross will disappear more quickly due to the
cloudiness of the solution. But only up to a point after this the
solution will not react within a reasonable time (i.e. under 30 min).
On a graph I predict it would be a plateau.

I think that the concentration of a solution effects the rate of
reaction because the rate of reaction depends on how frequently the
molecules of the reacting substances collide. A more concentrated
substance has more molecules for a given volume than a more dilute

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substance. Because there are more molecules about, the frequency of
successful collisions is greater, and the reactions happen faster.

Diagram to show this:

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




[IMAGE]




Lower conc. Of Hypo Higher conc. Of hypo

Prediction of graph shape:


Method:

Equipment

· 2 Measuring cylinders

· Conical flask

· Beaker

· Stopwatch

· Paper with cross marked on it

· Sodium Thiosulphate solution

· Hydrochloric Acid

· Water

· Pipette

Diagram to show set up:


I am going to measure how changing the conc. of Hypo (sodium
thiosulphate) affects the reaction time between it and hydrochloric
acid. Every time I will add 20 ml of hydrochloric acid that is 2 molar
to that I will add 20 ml of a hypo and distilled water solution. By
varying the amount of water in the 20 ml of hypo solution I will vary
the concentration. I will first put the hydrochloric acid in a test
tube with a cross on the back. Then I will add the hypo and will start
the stop clock immediately. As soon as the cross disappears I will
stop the timer.

Preliminary:

We decided we would test out our experiment using a computer light
sensor. This was meant to form a graph on the screen depending on how
much light was passing through. This in theory was a more accurate way
of knowing when the experiment had finished so we could get 'good'
results. The problem with this was that there was light coming in from
elsewhere in the room and thus affecting the results, we decided to
build a box to put the test tube in to cover the sensor and prevent
this happening.

[IMAGE]


It looked like this:

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




But unfortunately this still did not work and so we reverted to our
original way of doing the experiment, by eye.


Control:

I will use a range of concentrations so as to get a wide spread of
results. The concentrations I will use are:

§ 4 ml hypo + 16 ml water

§ 8 ml hypo + 12 ml water

§ 12 ml hypo + 8 ml water

§ 16 ml hypo + 4 ml water

§ 20 ml hypo + 0 water

I will use other concentrations if I do not feel that my results are
accurate and to help me define and 'see' anomalies.

Safety

To conduct my experiment safely I will follow normal laboratory rules,
which include:

· The wearing of safety goggles to protect my eyes from chemical
splashes.

· Standing up to conduct the experiment, therefore reducing the risk
of tripping and spilling chemicals.

· Taking care when handling chemicals, particularly Hydrochloric acid
and Sodium Thiosulphate because they are irritants. I will not touch
my eyes or mouth until I have thoroughly washed my hands.

· Taking care when using glassware to prevent injury.

Variable Control

To make this experiment a fair test I will only vary one thing - the
concentration of the Sodium Thiosulphate solution. I will conduct all
the tests at room temperature because temperature has an effect on the
rate of the reaction. The measures of Hydrochloric acid will all be
the same (10cm). The person timing the experiment will look for the
disappearance of the cross, otherwise there would be a time lapse
between seeing the cross disappear and telling the other person to
stop the clock and then eventually stopping the clock.

Results:

Test 1



How much sodium thiosulphate?
=============================

Time

4 ml hypo

6.12 min

8 ml hypo

5.43 min

12 ml hypo

3.02 min

16 ml hypo

2.29 min

20 ml hypo

1.34 min

Anomalous results: it is hard to see any anomalous results in this but
I feel that it took too long to disappear totally. This could be down
to the person stopping the clock and their eyesight, or it could be
down to something more scientific. I would need to do more tests to
check this.

Test 2



How much sodium thiosulphate?
=============================


Time
----

4 ml hypo

9.37 min

8 ml hypo

6.15 min

12 ml hypo

4.24 min

16 ml hypo

1.49 min

20 ml hypo

1.25 min

Anomalous results: again we were not sure if there were anomalies but
we felt that either the 16 ml of hypo was too fast a time or the 12 ml
hypo was too slow a time. So we decided to test 14 ml of hypo and to
re-test the 12 ml.



How much sodium thiosulphate?
=============================

Time

12 ml hypo

2 min

14 ml hypo

1.59 min

This proves our prediction that the 12 ml hypo took too long but that
makes you question the results for both the 8 ml of hypo and the 4 ml
of hypo. I would need to look at more results to make a concise
decision. Or do this set of results again.

Test 3



How much sodium thiosulphate?
=============================

Time

4 ml hypo

3.46 min

8 ml hypo

3.02 min

12 ml hypo

2.04 min

16 ml hypo

1.48 min

20 ml hypo

1.24 min

Anomalous results: I feel that these are my best results there does
not appear to be any anomalies and the reaction times are around those
I was expecting. By displaying them on a graph I will be able to see
any patterns or anomalies much clearer.


Conclusion

Average results:



How much sodium thiosulphate?
=============================

Av. Time

4 ml hypo

6.32 min

8 ml hypo

5.27 min

12 ml hypo

3.23 min

14 ml hypo

1.59 min

16 ml hypo

2.15 min

20 ml hypo

1.28 min

The 16 ml of hypo is the anomalous result in this case. It does not
follow the pattern set by the other results this can be seen on a
graph. One problem in using the average results is that one 'bad'
result will effect the overall average and will make that result less
accurate or reliable.

Graph of average results:


I conclude that the more concentrated a reactant is, the quicker the
rate of reaction time will be.

I have come to this conclusion because of several reasons. Firstly, my
results give pretty conclusive evidence that as the amount of Sodium
Thiosulphate decreases, and the amount of water in the solution
increases there are less atoms to collide and therefore less
successful collisions causing chemical change so the reaction rate is
slower. In a more concentrated solution, there are more atoms to
collide so the reaction time is quicker.

My results support the prediction I made because I said 'the greater
the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate the faster the rate of
reaction time.' I believe I was correct and a secondary source states
that 'the reaction time will be faster with a more concentrated
solution because, the more molecules there are, the frequency of
successful collisions is greater and therefore the reaction rate is
speeded up'. - Secondary source Britannia Interactive Encyclopaedia
1998.

Evaluation

My experiment went according to plan but there were flaws in it. I
think there is a human error factor involved when you are measuring
liquids and looking for an end point in the reaction. Although the
reaction I chose had a fairly definite end point it was still hard to
tell whether the whole cross had disappeared or not. Instead of using
a cross a light beam could be used and when the beam goes out that is
the end point. A better standard of measuring cylinders and pipettes
could be used.

I feel that because my results have a certain amount of inconsistency
between them it would be wise to repeat them again if I had time

Are my results accurate?

My results are good in their accuracy and the points on the graph were
plotted as accurately as possible. Although, I did get some anomalous
results but that is to be expected. All my 'good' results fitted my
prediction and made a strong trend in the graphs. I tested my results
3 times to ensure that I had not made any mistakes, and I also did
preliminary work in order to familiarise myself with the project,
set-up and equipment and to see if there was a better way of doing the
experiment.

The problem comes when using the overall average that any anomalous
results that are included to produce this average make it less
accurate and so less dependable. Increasing the chance of error and
the need to do the experiment again.

Are they reliable?

They seem reliable but you always have to consider more. Because I am
basing my interpretation of their reliability on a hypothesis and my
own personal view it is hard to tell. I see them as reliable but if my
views and hypothesis are wrong then the results are not reliable. I
would need more time to research this further in order to make a firm
decision.

I think that our original idea of using a computerised light sensitive
device was a good idea. I feel that with more time I could develop a
way to let me use this. The results that I could get from this (if it
worked) would be more reliable and 'strong'.

To extend this work one could look into the affects of catalysts (and
other variables) on reaction times or you could try the same
experiment with different substances or by varying the amount of acid
instead.



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