The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing

The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing

Length: 368 words (1.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing

Breathing is an involuntary movement that is controlled by the
medulla, which is part of the hind brain. Air is sucked into the lungs
by an active process called inspiration. The external intercostals
muscle contract and the internal intercostals muscle relax this causes
the ribs to be drawn upwards and outwards. While this is happening the
diaphragm muscles contracts and pushes down towards the abdomen. The
lungs are made to expand because the pleural surfaces of the lungs are
attached to the pleural on the chest wall; this increases the volume
of the air spaces and drops the air pressure in the lungs so that air
rushes in.

Expiration is mainly an involuntary reaction to the external
intercostals and diaphragm muscles relaxing. The elastic fibres in the
stretched lung are recoiled which allows the ribs and diaphragm to
return to their original position. Air pressure in the lungs rise to
just above atmospheric pressure therefore the air is expelled.

Regulation of breathing is controlled by the respiratory centre in the
hind brain. The respiratory centre has three areas called the
medullary rhythmicity area, the apneustic area and the pneumotaxic
area. Basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration is controlled by the
medullary rhythmicity area. Nerve impulses from the apneustic area can
alter the depth of breathing and nerve impulses from the pneumotaxic
area can alter the breathing rate.

The respiratory centre is influenced by many sensory signals which
indicate what changes need to be done to the regulation of breathing.
One of the most important changes would be an alteration in the
concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood this could be caused by a
rise in blood carbon dioxide or an increase in tissue respiration in
the muscles during exercise. The respiratory centre is in its self
sensitive to raised hCo2 and responds by increasing the rate and depth
of breathing.

In the aortic arch and carotid bodies there are chemoreceptors these
sense changes to the blood oxygen tension but only respond to a large

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing." 15 Aug 2018

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Summary of the Fear of Breathing by Lafferty, Sherlock and Wood Essay

- Each new morn.New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows strike heaven on the face (qtd in Lawson, Sandra. 2013) In the eighty-five pages play, Lafferty, Sherlock, and Wood exert their utmost effort to document, organize, and reconstruct a collage of verbatim testimonies, reports, and interviews eyewitnesses of the Syrian Revolution .The interviews were conducted by Laffery in collaboration with veteran war correspondents: Sherlock and Wood. Lafferty and colleagues conducted interviews incognito with ordinary people, activists, businesspersons, defectors, Free Syrian Army soldiers, and medical staff....   [tags: Fear of Breathing Essays]

Research Papers
2702 words (7.7 pages)

The Importance of International Trade Regulation Mechanisms Has Risen Essay

- ... The main change was the elimination of consensus requirement on the key stages of settling disputes what definitely has raised its effectiveness. In this chapter I would like to elaborate when/in which case a state can apply to that system and what procedures are followed. Firstly, it is needed to be clarified that a dispute arises "when a member government believes another member government is violating an agreement or a commitment that it has made in the WTO". There are three main categories under which the disputes arise: -Disputes on trade in goods that constitute the majority out of disputes handled( I this case, applicable substantive law is mainly the General Agreement on Tariffs...   [tags: global power, WTO, developing countries]

Research Papers
1668 words (4.8 pages)

Essay on The Role of Micro RNAs in Gene Regulation

- Micro RNAs (miRNA’s) are created from microgenes and are a molecule that is aproximetly 22 base pairs in length, they are thought to coordinate the expression of genes that are protein coding in eukaryotes. Over 1000 have been discovered and they seem to compromise a secondary level of control that is likely to coordinate the genome function in humans and other complex organisms (Elliot and Elliot) It is also known that these miRNA help initiate the degradation of mRNA and prevent the translation of mRNA into protein through a process known as RNA interference....   [tags: Transcriptional Regulation, Repression]

Research Papers
824 words (2.4 pages)

Essay about The Defense Mechanism

- Defense mechanism, in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions. Sigmund Freud first used defense as a psychoanalytic term (1894), but he did not break the notion into categories, viewing it as a singular phenomenon of repression. His daughter, Anna Freud, expanded on his theories in the 1930s, distinguishing some of the major defense mechanisms recognized today. Primary defense mechanisms include repression and denial, which serve to prevent unacceptable ideas or impulses from entering the conscience....   [tags: Defense Mechanisms]

Research Papers
3474 words (9.9 pages)

RFID Standards And Regulation Essays

- While the potential benefits of RFID technology are clear and abundant, there is a definite need to regulate the development and implementation of the RFID technology. Not only must standards of regulation and operation be developed, but RFID technology raises privacy and security issues because of the passive and open nature of the technology. In order for the RFID tag industry to be successful in implementation there needs to be uniform standards and regulation so that tags and readers from different manufactures will be able to communicate with each other....   [tags: Business Regulation]

Free Essays
1472 words (4.2 pages)

Business Regulation Case Essay

- The challenges that surrounded Alumina, Inc. could have been detrimental to the corporation. Areas the management team needed to concentrate on were the corporation's image to the general public as well as competitors, current customers and potential customers. Management's duty was to manage the crisis by preventing extensive losses to the company while at the same time preserving the image of the company and doing right by the community. As a team we agreed upon the strategies and recommendations to solve the challenges for Alumina, Inc., although the timing of how the events would play out was slightly different....   [tags: Business Regulation]

Free Essays
1996 words (5.7 pages)

Essay on Alumina Inc Regulation Case Study

- Introduction Alumina Inc. (AI) is a U.S. based international aluminum company with eight locations worldwide, worth of $4 billion. Its business markets include “automotive components and manufacture of packaging materials, bauxite mining, alumina refining, and aluminum smelting” (University of Phoenix simulation, 2008) and the company falls under the following regulatory agencies and acts: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)....   [tags: Environmental Business Regulation]

Free Essays
2215 words (6.3 pages)

Business Regulation Simulation: Alumina Inc. Essay

- Business Regulation Simulation: Alumina Inc. Alumina is a 4 billion dollar aluminum manufacturer based in the US. Although the company operates out of 8 different countries, 70% of Alumina's sales derive from the US market. Five years ago, during a regular compliance inspection, Alumina was found to be in violation of environmental discharge norms due to high levels of PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon). Following this discovery, the EPA ordered a clean up and Alumina was found to be in compliance during subsequent inspections....   [tags: Business Regulation Simulation Analysis]

Free Essays
1026 words (2.9 pages)

Stem Cells -- Ethics, Research, and Regulation Essay

- Stem Cells -- Ethics, Research, and Regulation I. Introduction: “Embryonic stem cell research offers both great promise and great peril.” - President George W. Bush, Aug. 9, 2001 Stem cell research is not new but only recently has it become widely known to the public because the benefits of the technology are coming closer to reality; the field of stem cell biology is advancing at an incredible pace with new discoveries being reported in scientific literature on a weekly basis. Scientists first announced a method of growing embryonic stem cells in a laboratory in 1981, but the cells were from a mouse....   [tags: Embryonic Stem Cell Research Regulation]

Research Papers
3898 words (11.1 pages)

The Mechanism of Negative Feedback Essay

- The Mechanism of Negative Feedback Homeostasis means beatified sex. It is an ability of an organism to control its internal environment, that is the composition of their body fluids, for them to survive fluctuating external conditions. Homeostasis is used to describe all the mechanisms by homeostatic control. Maintenance of stability requires control systems capable of detecting any deviation from the usual and making the necessary adjustments to return it to its normal condition....   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
1503 words (4.3 pages)

drop in oxygen. Baroreceptors are also found in the aortic arch and
carotid bodies and these are sensitive to a change in blood pressure.
The ph of the blood is monitored by the peripheral chemoreceptors. In
the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles there and stretch receptors
which are simulated by overstretching during excessive inspiration.

The control of breathing is a complex interaction and can be
influenced by many other factors e.g. raised body temperature, pain
and emotion. There is also an ability to control and alter our
breathing voluntary for various reasons such as speaking, yawning or

Reference: Advanced human biology. J Simpkins. J I Williams.
Return to