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aggressively nationalistic and stands for a centralized autocratic
government headed by a dictorial leader, severe regimentation, and
forcible suppression of opposition. 2 informal brutal dictorial
Fascists were tamer versions of Nazis. There is six elements usually
found in fascist regimes"
A belief in leaders: Strong leaders, imposing and dictorial
A belief in the value of a strong and unified nation: the willing and
eager sacrifice of individual goals and lives to strengthen the
Coordination and propaganda: advertising, ceremonies, the ruling party
as an enforcer of discipline and respect for the leader.
A belief in at least some traditional hierarchies: the army, the
family, sometimes the church.
A hatred of socialists and liberals: socialists as opponents of
national self-assertion liberals as unwilling to take the steps
necessary to fight socialists, as self-absorbed individualists who
weakened the nation, and as parliamentarians who did not recognize
that the nation, not the individual, held rights.
A hatred of Jews: thieves and deceivers, people who made their money
through financial manipulation rather than heroic feats of engineering
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th 1889 in Braunau-am-Inn, Austria.
The town is near the German border, and his father, Alois, worked as a
customs officer on the border. His mother, Klara, had previously given
birth to two other children fathered by Alois, (Gustav and Ida) but
they both died at birth. Adolf Hitler grew up with a good record in
primary school but then recieved a poor record at secondary school and
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artist. Alois Hitler had died when Adolf was thirteen and Klara
brought up Adolf and Paula (his younger sister) on her own.
Between sixteen and nineteen, young Hitler neither worked to earn his
keep, nor studied, but gained an interest in politics and history.
During this time he unsuccessfully applied to the Vienna Academy of
Klara Hitler died from cancer when Adolf was nineteen. In 1909, he
moved to Vienna in the hope of somehow earning a living off an orphans
wage. At First World War, in 1914, he volunteered for service in the
German army and was signed up into the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry
Regiment . Hitler fought bravely in the war and was promoted to
corporal and decorated with both the Iron Cross Second Class and First
Class, he wore the Iron Cross First Class until he died. Funnily
enough the captain who recommended him for the award was Jewish.
Short before the end of the war in 1918, he was injured by an English
gas attack. He lost his eyes sight temporally and spent several months
in hospital. At the end of war he returned to Munich. He joined the
National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) in 1919 and from
April joined them. In 1921 he was elected as "Führer". He soon became
a key figure in Bavarian politics and he spread his ideas about racial
hate and objections to democracy. In November 1923 he led the Beerhall
Putsch against the postwar Weimar Republic, proclaiming himself
chancellor of a new authoritarian regime. However this putsch failed.
He was sentenced to five years in prison in Landsberg. During this
time he wrote his autobiography "Mein Kampf". He was released nine
months later and he immediately began rebuilding the Nazi party. In
1930 the Nazi party was represented with 107 seats in the German
parliament (Reichstag). Three years later on 30th January 1933 he
became German chancellor. Once in power he quickly established himself
as a dictator. At this time he made sure that every house in Germany
had a radio. Propaganda was his weapon. Also his charasmatic aura and
his strong disciplinarian ways helped him reach power. FEAR WAS HIS
WEAPON to Europe.He began rearming Germany which met little protest.
In 1936 he sent troops into Rhineland, but France and the rest of the
world did not react. During the Spanish Civil War in 1936 he supported
the Nationalist leader Francisco Franco by supplying airplanes and
weapons and sending German troops. In 1938 Hitler occupied Austria and
the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. Britain and France feared the
outbreak of a war so they agreed in the Munich Pact to this on the
basis that Hitler would not take over any additional Czech territory.
However in March 1939 Hitler occupied the reminder of Czechoslovakia.
In August 1939 Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, and
in the pact, the two countries secretly divided up Poland. This pact
laid the foundations for World War II and in September 1939 Germany
defeated Poland. One year later Germany overran most of Europe and in
1941 Hitler gave the order to attack the Soviet union. Throughout
World War II he continued the campaign to destroy the Jews. In 1942
Hitler met with Reich officials to create the final solution to the
Jewish problem. The Germans began building large extermination camps
to accompany the concentration camps where about six million Jews were
killed. Endless trains took millions of Jews to the camps. This had a
serious effect on the war. After the German defeat at Stalingrad
during the Winter of 1942/43, the war turned against Germany. Hitler
refused to surrender. On 20th July 1944, a group of German officers
under the leadership of Colonel Graf von Stauffenberg attempted to
assassinate Hitler, but their attempt failed.Finally, when Soviet
troops surrounded his bunker in Berlin on 30th April 1945, Hitler
committed suicide together with his long-time companion, Eva Braun,
whom he had married the day before.
Hitler and Mussolini, two of the most cruellest men of the 20th
Century. They both used propaganda to get control, get noticed and get