Profile on Antonio Gaudi - Spanish Essay

Profile on Antonio Gaudi - Spanish Essay

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Profile on Antonio Gaudi in Spanish

Hijo de un modesto calderero, vivió una infancia enfermiza en la que
padeció frecuentes dolores reumáticos, los que, en muchas ocasiones,
le impidieron realizar algo tan normal como era jugar con los otros
niños. Estas molestias físicas le acompañaron el resto de sus días. El
lugar de su nacimiento se lo disputan Riudoms y Reus, poblaciones muy
próximas entre sí en la provincia de Tarragona, si bien la mayoría de
sus biógrafos afirman que fue en Reus.

Se trasladó a Barcelona, a los 17 años, con la intención de cursar
estudios de Arquitectura. Por falta de recursos económicos tuvo que
simultanear sus estudios con el trabajo de delineante y proyectista.
Esto le permitió trabajar junto a conocidos arquitectos, como Josep
Fontseré y Joan Martorell.

Cuando a los 26 años obtuvo el título de Arquitecto, estaba a punto de
iniciarse una nueva etapa en la vida de Antoni Gaudí. Mientras
esperaba realizar obras de mayor envergadura, llevó a cabo algunos
pequeños trabajos de carácter decorativo. Entre ellos diseñó una
vitrina para una conocida guantería de Barcelona, Casa Comella, para
la Exposición Universal de París de 1878. Eusebi Güell, importante
empresario del sector textil, quedó prendado de la modernidad y
elegancia de aquella vitrina. Tras conocer al joven autor, se
convirtió en el principal cliente y mecenas de Gaudí.

Gaudí no sólo revolucionó la arquitectura, además fue un creador
prolífico. Diseñó muebles, mosaicos, elementos decorativos, hierro
forjado y cualquier elemento que formara parte de sus construcciones.

Un estilo personalísimo

Gaudí fue el creador de una nueva arquitectura basada en las líneas
curvas. Experimentó estructuras y nuevas formas de una manera
continuada. Por este motivo, prefería desarrollar sus ideas a escala y
en forma corpórea. La tridimensionalidad de sus maquetas en yeso,
barro, tela metálica, o cartón mojado y moldeado, le acompañaron
siempre. Sus ideas "corpóreas", en muchas ocasiones, no fueron
sometidas a la limitación que obligan las dos dimensiones del papel de
dibujo. A veces modificaba las formas directamente en la obra, en el

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momento de la realización.

Uno de sus biógrafos, Juan Bassegoda Nonell (Doctor Arquitecto y
Catedrático de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) dice al
respecto:

"...Se había apercibido de que los arquitectos sólo usan la formas que
previamente pueden dibujar con dos instrumentos, que son la escuadra y
el compás. A lo largo de toda la historia de la arquitectura las
formas de los edificios han sido hijas de estos dos simples
instrumentos, que permiten dibujar círculos, triángulos, cuadrados o
rectángulos, que en el espacio se convierten en prismas, pirámides,
cilindros y esferas que dan lugar a los pilares, las cubiertas, las
columnas y las cúpulas.

"... vio claramente que estas formas geométricas simples rara vez se
dan en la Naturaleza, que, por otra parte, construye excelentes
estructuras, acreditadas por los largos siglos de eficacia. La
estructura de un árbol es de una rara perfección, mucho más compleja y
bien resuelta que las estructuras creadas por los arquitectos. No se
puede dudar que el esqueleto de los mamíferos es extraordinariamente
eficaz y resuelve los problemas con estabilidad y motilidad de manera
admirable."

"... El fémur es casi hiperboloide, el crecimiento de los tallos
alrededor de una rama se hace helicoidalmente y la superficie de la
piel entre los dedos de una mano es un paraboloide hiperbólico."

"...(el) intento de Gaudí fue sencillamente introducir un cambio de
geometría en la arquitectura. Esto puede considerarse una revolución,
pero en todo caso una revolución nada traumática, puesto que la
geometría de la arquitectura gaudiniana es mucho más antigua que la
inventada por los arquitectos."

La muerte de Antoni Gaudí

Nadie podía suponer que aquel anciano que yacía en el suelo, al
atardecer del 7 de junio de 1926, tras haber sido arrollado por el
tranvía nº 30, en el cruce de la Gran Vía y la calle Bailén de
Barcelona, era el famoso Antoni Gaudí.

Al no portar ningún documento, con parte de su sencilla vestimenta
sujetada con agujas imperdibles, y un libro de Evangelios como única
pertenencia, (¡él, que en su juventud había destacado por su elegancia
y por ser un verdadero dandy en el vestir!) fue ingresado en el
hospital de la Santa Cruz, comoun indigente indocumentado más. Al
avanzar la noche y no regresar a su modesto dormitorio, por aquel
entonces en un reducido anexo a las obras de La Sagrada Familia, fue
buscado por las casas de socorro y hospitales de Barcelona.

Al día siguiente, los más eminentes médicos comprobaron la gravedad de
las lesiones sufridas por el renombrado arquitecto. Al publicar la
prensa diaria la noticia del atropello, las personalidades más
relevantes desfilaron por el hospital: políticos, cardenales, obispos,
aristócratas, arquitectos...

Tras su fallecimiento, tres días después del atropello, se formaron
largas colas de público para ofrecerle su homenaje y último adiós. Fue
enterrado, en olor de multitud en la cripta de La Sagrada Familia.
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