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Source A is from a speech by Gandhi that was later recorded in his
biography in 1954. Gandhi told a US writer that India needed its
freedom and independence. Gandhi explains in the source that he wants
the people of India to become free.
We learn from source A about the origins of the "Quit India" campaign
that it began when World War Two was taking place. The Indians joined
the "Quit India" campaign because they wanted freedom from the British
rule. The Indians were fighting for Britain democracy.
Ghandi used this situation as an example for independence. The reason
why he used the example for independence was because the British
government didn't give the Indians what they wanted. The British were
taking advantage of the Indians.
2. Does the evidence of source C support the evidence of sources A and
B about the reasons for opposition to British rule in the 1940s?
Explain your answer.
The evidence of source C supports the evidence of source A and B for
opposition to the British rule. Source C was written by Jinnah. His
opinion supports to some extent which is that Muslims and Hindus only
want one thing which is Independence and they have nothing else in
common, "â€¦There are only two links between Muslims and Hindus: British
rule and the common desire to get rid of it ".
Source C doesn't support sources A and B because source A and B say
the whole of India needs to be free.
Source A is a speech by M K Ghandi. Ghandi wanted a united India.
Ghandi has a reason for wanting a united India, "â€¦ I do not want the
axis to win, but I am sure that British can not win unless the Indian
people become freeâ€¦" Ghandi implies that the British wont receive any
support unless India is made united.
The part of source C that contradicts source B is where Jawarhal Nehru
said, " The idea of a great country like India being treated as a mere
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bitterly resented ". This shows that Jawarhal treated all the Indians
the same because he believed India is one and single. Jawarhal Nehru
was an atheist so he wanted a united India.
3. How useful are sources D and E in helping you to understand why the
policy of the British government towards independence for India
changed after the Second World War?
Source D explains to us how they had to get rid of the troops, which
proves that there was improvement in attitude towards independence.
The British realised that the Indians needed independence because
during 1917 to 1920 Indians could not trust the British:
Â· The British overcame issues presented by Gandhi
Â· Indians joined the independence campaign
Â· The Indians started to believe that the British had had no intention
of giving India its freedom.
Â· A movement for independence was made
The British took note of their fate and decided that they could try to
increase the control of India or they could try persuading Indians to
come together. This source was written by a member of the labour
party. The purpose of it was to recognise the fact that the Indians
needed their independence. This source is accurate and justified
because the writer was a member of the politics who had full knowledge
of what was happening at the time.
Source E shows a picture forming of violence. This text describes how
the Hindus and Muslims killed each other because of their different
religions. The text explains how grossly the people treated each
other, "â€¦laid on their faces and being beheaded into the riverâ€¦" A
British citizen who was actually there at the time writes this source.
This makes the text more precise seeing as though he wasn't taking
sides exaggerating against the less favourite religion. The British
government would have noticed that the violence was going on till the
British made a move and give the Indians what they needed.
The two sources are written in different forms. Source D explains of
the decisions that were available after World War Two to bring about
change to the British policy. Parts of source E describe a scene of
violence, which plainly shows the policy of the British government
towards independence changed after the Second World War.
4. Use Sources F and G, and your own knowledge, to help you explain
why Indian Independence for India was partitioned in 1947?
Sources F and G show images of violence forming. The violent behaviour
would carry on until a partition was made creating separate countries
for Muslims and Hindus. The Muslims and Hindus were causing riots and
killing each other in very brutal aspects. It was difficult for the
fighting to stop because the police had little chance of stopping the
fighting given that they were supporting their own religion: "
â€¦defection of the police". This gives us a clear idea of the fact that
the disturbance was unstoppable in some aspects unless the British
government agreed to make a partition.
The difference between Muslims and Hindus was too great- the signs of
riot were to leave some disturbing scars till this day between the two
religions that remain today. Muslims and Hindus couldn't live
together, it was quite impossible.
Partition was also compulsory because Direct Action made people aware
of the possibility of bloodshed. Again this was because of the
differences between Muslims and Hindus. Violence was caused for
security and hatred from the enemy. Jonah wanted an independent
Pakistan. Jinnah was aware that the Hindus and Muslims would not live
peacefully, which is why he wanted a separate country for the Muslims.
Jinnah wanted his own country; I support Jinnah in his decision
because he knew that the two religions would not bond together
peacefully even though he hadn't bought up the idea of partition
Another reason for partition was because Mountbatten (the viceroy)
realised, after learning of the violence, that partition was
unavoidable. Mountbatten made the decision of the partition. Atlee
also played a role in partition because he wanted the British to get
out of India. Atlee also believed Britain had no right to govern
India. Mountbatten made the decision of partition.
5. "Te partition of India in 1947 could not have been avoided"
I agree that partition was unavoidable. The Muslims and Hindus weren't
able to get on together. In Source E the British writer describes the
event and how terrible it was, "â€¦ after the riot the river was
literally chocked with dead bodiesâ€¦" This gives a precise idea of the
Source G is a report and it says that bands were raiding villages
killing all the enemies in the opponent religion. Even the police were
joining in on the rioting, "â€¦defection of the policeâ€¦.''.
The last source, which is the most disturbing, goes into the details
of the rioting. Source H is from a book about events in the Punjab,
the book is written by Muslim policemen who were present at the time.
The writer describes how his family and the passengers had been cut to
death and wounded during the riot, â€¦ "my son and three year old
daughter were torn to deathâ€¦"
M A Jinnah wanted a separate Muslim state called Pakistan including
Punjab and Bengal. This is also a reason why partition was unavoidable
Muslims and Hindus had too many differences. They needed their own
states a campaign call "direct Action" was made and this made people
realise that violence was possible.
The labour government couldn't afford to govern India anymore so they
were determined to make India independent at all costs.
Ghandi wanted to avoid partition because he believed that India was
one country. Ghandi was horrified by direct action because he believed
Jinnah was the most responsible for the partition because it was
Jinnah who bought up the idea of partition. Jinnah also persuaded the
Muslims to support it.
When the year 1947 came and the violence became too much, the
partition was decided by Mountbatten. He thought that it was
impossible to keep India united as one country. The plan was presented
to Jinnah and Nehru. This made them reach a composition by announcing
that the British would be leaving in less than a year.