Urbanisation

Urbanisation

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Urbanisation


Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people who live in
cities. There is a great increase in the rate of urbanisation all
around the world. During the nineteenth century urbanisation took
place in the UK. However in developed countries like the UK,
urbanisation seems to be slowing down. However in less developed
countries urbanisation is taking place.

Urbanisation has taken place all over the world. One of the major
reasons for it is because there are better paid jobs in the city; so
more people want the ideal lifestyle, a nice house and lots of money.
Also lots of people are attracted to the big cities like LA, because
they think that they have a better chance of becoming famous. Also
most people think if they move to the city they have a better chance
of having a higher quality of life and to be housed more comfortably.
Another reason why people are attracted to the big city is because
they expect a more reliable source of food for them and their
families.

As well as all those pull factors to the city there are also many push
factors from where they live at the moment. These are that farming is
hard work with long hours and little pay, so this means they would not
have enough money for food etc. Also there are natural disasters like
droughts, which could ruin all the farmers' crops, this normally
happens in Sahel countries. One other reason is that some of the
families have no land, so they are forced to leave.

Because of all this Urbanisation there have been many problems. In Rio
for example one third of the population live in self build houses
called favelles, this is a big problem because some of the self-build
houses are built on marsh and hills without any proper foundations.
The main problem with the favelles is that they are overcrowded,
however more people are still moving in. People moved to the cities
for the hope of better jobs or employment, however people are still

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struggling to find a job. Also the Informal economy is growing which
is leading to lots of stolen or illegal equipment being sold, for a
reduced price. Also in lots of the houses they do not have an
electricity supply or even a running tap for water, which means that
lots of the houses have no luxuries like televisions, microwaves etc.
Also in some parts of the favelles there is no sewage network, which
is a huge problem because the sanitation of the people is low because
their waste is dumped on to the street.

Mumbai Bustees also have lots of problems; even though it's a
different country they still have roughly the same sorts of problems.
The have people move into the city and build their own shelters. Also
there are a lot of street kids around who either go into a life of
crime or try and earn a living by picking up paper to sell to
recyclers. There is not enough space for all the new people flocking
to Mumbai; the population is around 8 million and 1-2 million living
in slums at this present time. Also because there is not a drainage
system, in the wet season there is normally an overflow.

Because of all these problems, groups of people are working together
trying to think of ways to improve the standard of living. In Mumbai
women have started to become cooks, and sell their food to street kids
for a very small price. Also women have a spokes group, which discuss
their problems and how to sort them out. They have recently designed
houses for themselves out of card; they then were given a plot of land
from the train station on which to build their houses. People have
also made bore wells, which supplies a clean supply of water.

In Rio people have been given electricity from the government, which
allows people to have modern appliances and fresh water from a tap,
which allows people to be healthier. Also the houses are built out of
concrete, which makes them stronger, and also have more insulation.
Some houses have also been painted which makes them look smarter.
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