# Resistance of a Wire

#### Essay Preview

More ↓Aim: - I hope to find out how resistance of a wire is affected.

Prediction: - I predict that as the length of the wire increases the

resistance will also increase.

Scientific Knowledge: -

=======================

A wire is a bundle of metal strips coated in plastic. The plastic can

vary in colour and connect to different terminals

These are: -

------------

Â· Black = negative terminal

Â· Red = positive terminal

Â· Blue = neutral terminal

Â· Green and yellow = earth terminal

Â· Brown = live terminal

The material varies because it has free electrons, which are able to

flow through the wire. The number of the electrons depends on the

amount of electrons in the outer energy shell of the atoms, so if

there are more or larger atoms then there must be more electrons

available. If the material has a high number of atoms there will be a

high number of electrons causing a lower resistance because of the

increase in the number of electrons. Also if the atoms in the material

are closely packed then the electrons will have more frequent

collisions and the resistance will increase. Resistance is measured in

Ohm's (Î©).

Ohm's Law

The law actually says that the resistance of a metal conductor is the

same whatever the current - unless it's getting hotter. However most

people think of these equations when the law gets mentioned:

V = IR

V is Voltage in Volts, I is Current in Amps and R is resistance in

Ohms.

If the length of the wire is increased then the resistance will also

increase as the electrons will have a longer distance to travel and so

more collisions will occur. Due to this the length increase should be

proportional to the resistance increase. If the wires width is

increased the resistance will decrease. This is because of the

increase in the space for the electrons to travel through.

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increased space between the atoms there should be less collisions.

Resistance is a force that acts against another it is also how hard it

is to get current to flow through a component at a certain voltage.

High resistance is hard for the current to flow. Low resistance is

easy for the current to flow.

Current is the flow of electrons. There are two types of current: -

Â· A.C. (Alternating Current) is where current changes direction

(alternates) continuously. The number of complete cycles of reversal

is called frequency. For mains electricity, the frequency is 50 cycles

per second (50 Hertz). We can use a C.P.O (Comparative Phosphor

Oscilloscope) to compare frequency and voltage.

Â· D.C (Direct Current) is where the current always flows in the same

direction. Cells and batteries supply a D.C. current.

Method

[IMAGE]

1. Set up the circuit as shown above WITH THE POWER SWITCHED OFF

2. First use a piece of wire of one meter in length then move the

crocodile clips towards each other to the appropriate length; 90cm,

80cm 70cm, 60cm, 50cm, down to 10cm. This means you will have 10

results.

3. Turn the power on to 2 volts, then take a reading of the ammeter

and the voltmeter

4. Before shortening wire to 90cm, allow two minutes for the wire to

cool down because it will be very hot to touch and it would also be a

unfair test.

5. Repeat the above until length is 10cm

6. Repeat the whole investigation for Reliability