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the public dial-up services support analogue signals. analogue signals
are what we encounter every day of our lifes. speech is an analogue
signal, and varies in amplitude(volume), frequency (pitch) and phase
Digital signals are the language of modern day computers. Digital
signals comprise only tow states. These are expressed as ON or OFF, 1
or 0 respectivally. examples of devices having TWO states in the home
· Light switches Either On or OFF
· Doors: Either OPEN or CLOSED
Refers to transmission in only one direction. the difference between
simplex and half-duplex Half-duplex refers to two-way communications
where only one party can transmit at a time. Simplex refers to one-way
communications where one party is the transmitter and the other is the
receiver. An example of simplex communications is a simple radio,
which you can receive data from stations but can't transmit data.
Refers to the transmission of data in just one direction at a time.
For example, a walkie-talkie is a half-duplex device because only one
party can talk at a time. In contrast, a telephone is a full-duplex
device because both parties can talk simultaneously.
Most modem contain a switch that lets you select between half-duplex
and full-duplex. The correct choice depends on which program you are
using to transmit data through the modem.
In half-duplex mode, each character transmitted is immediately
displayed on your screen. (For this reason, it is sometimes called
local echo characters are echoed by the local. device. In full-duplex
mode, transmitted data is not displayed on your monitor until it has
been received and returned (remotely echoed) by the other device. If
you are running a communications program and every character appears
twice, it probably means that your modem is in half-duplex mode when
it should be in full-duplex mode, and every character is being both
locally and remotely echoed.
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"Using Signals to Code Data for Transmission Analog and Digital." 123HelpMe.com. 20 Feb 2020
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Refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously.
For example, a telephone is a full-duplex because both parties can
talk at once. In contrast, a walkie-talkie is a half-duplex device
because only one party can transmit at a time.
Most modem have a switch that lets you choose between full-duplex and
half-duplex modeml. The choice depends on which communications program
you are running.
In full-duplex mode, data you transmit does not appear on your
screenuntil it has been received and sent back by the other party.
This enables you to validate that the data has been accurately
transmitted. If your display screen shows two of each character, it
probably means that your modem is set to half-duplex mode when it
should be in full-duplex mode.
Advantages of Twisted Pair Cable
· a high istalled base
· cheap to install
· easy to terminate
Its disadvantages are,
· very noisy
· limited in distance
· suffers from interference
advantages of Coaxial cable
· cheap to install
· conforms to standards
· it is widely used
· carry more conversations greater capacity than UTP
its disadvantages are
· limited to distance
· limited in number of connections
· terminations and connectors must be done properly