Heat Loss Through Convection and Evaporation

Heat Loss Through Convection and Evaporation

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Heat Loss Through Convection and Evaporation


Investigate if heat is lost through convection quicker then


Beakers, water (150ml), Thermometer,

stand and clamp, red material, scissors and timer.

Key factors

I need to keep the size of the beaker, water (150ml), temperature and
insulating material. I need to

Change where I put the insulating material on the beaker. I need to
measure the water (150ml).

To make this experiment a fair test I will have to keep the following
factors the same:

* Volume of water

* Starting temperature of water

* The number of times the insulation is wrapped around the container

* Material of container

* Where the thermometer is placed in the water

* Be careful to protect eyes by using safety goggles

If I keep all of these the same my experiment will be a fair one.


1. Put on safety goggles

2. Collect all the equipment that is needed as shown in apparatus
list above

3. Wrap the two containers with the chosen insulators.

4. Boil kettle

5. Pour 150ml of boiled water into measuring cylinder

6. Pour this into one of the two containers

7. Put the thermometer in the water

8. Wait until the water cools down to 65°c

9. Start stop clock

10. Record the temperature every minute for 20 minutes

11. Repeat procedure for the other container

12. Repeat the whole set of experiment twice to ensure greater


Safety precautions are needed because I am dealing with hot water,
which can scald. The following things need to be thought about, in
order to keep this experiment safe:

* Be careful not to knock over the container with the hot water in

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* Be careful not to knock over other peoples containers

* Care is needed when pouring hot water

* Do not run with the container of hot water



I predict that the most heat lost is in convection and evaporation.

Convection is where the cooler water particles sink down to the bottom
and the warmer water particles float up to the top. If there is no lid
on the beaker the warm water will float up to the top and the heat
energy will escape out of the top. If a pan of water was being heated
from below then the water particles at the bottom of the pan will
become warm as therefore become less dense, they will begin to rise to
the top of the pan. As the warmer water particles begin to rise, the
cooler water particles at the top of the pan will sink to the bottom,
as they are less dense. Once at the bottom of the pan, the water will
start to get warmer and become less dense. This process will continue
until the pan of water is at the same temperature.

Conduction is when heat energy passes through the walls of the beaker
by making the particles of the beaker vibrate and then they will make
the particles next to them vibrate causing the heat to pass through
the walls of the beaker and out to the surroundings. Materials that
are good thermal conductors tend to be good electrical conductors;
metals such as gold, silver and copper have high thermal
conductivity's and will conduct heat readily but materials such as
cotton or rubber is a good insulator. Materials such as glass have
much smaller heat transfer values and are poor heat conductors.


More heat was lost with evaporation and convection as the graph proves
over 20 minutes by 2.5oC than conduction. A solid has molecules that
are tightly packed

I was correct in my prediction.
From these statements I therefore conclude that:

* Heat loss is reduced when there is a insulator wrapped around the

* Small pockets of air makes a excellent insulator

* The colour black is a good conductor of heat


I feel that I was precise when measuring volumes of water and

I measured the water with a measuring cylinder as the water meniscus
just touched the line.
I also measured the temperature with a thermometer to the nearest .5 °C.
I measured the starting temperature accurately.
I measured the time every minute to the nearest second with the stop
I did take enough readings as I recorded the temperature once every
minute for 20 minutes, which gave me 20 results

I obtained an anomalous result. This result may have been in error
because I may have recorded the time at slightly different times when
writing down the temperature or I miss read the temperature. To
improve my experiment I would take the readings twice to make an


I concluded that the heat lost was greater by convection and
evaporation than by conduction.

When the flask was covered and heat could only escape through the
sides it took longer to cool as the resistance to heat lose through a
conductor was greater than heat lose by convection and evaporation.

This was proved by the experiment and shows on the graph.
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