How Penguins Keep Warm

How Penguins Keep Warm

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How Penguins Keep Warm

Befor experiment

Aim I aim to investigate whether penguins huddling together in a group
are able to keep warmer than a solitary penguin using test tube as
model penguins.

Prediction I predict that the penguins that are in a huddle shall stay
warmer for longer than the penguin that is alone. This is because the
penguins in the huddle shall absorb some of the heat energy lost by
the surrounding penguins and so keep warmer unlike the penguin which
is alone who will gain no heat energy as there are no surrounding
penguins. I also believe that the penguins closest to the centre of
the huddle shall keep warmer for longer than some the penguins further
away from the centre of the huddle as they have more penguins
surrounding them and will re-absorb more heat.

[IMAGE]

Preliminary tests

Plan To find out how long I need to leave the experiment to get some
decent enough results back to answer the question, I need to make a
small rough test to decipher how long it takes the test tubes full of
hot water to cool down.

[IMAGE]

I am going to use just two layers of test tubes as it will be easier
to use as a simple test and shall hopefully be enough to remotely see
if the centre tube will stay warmer than the outer ones and how long
shall leave it for.

Results

[IMAGE]

Analysis The results show that in the 20 minutes the experiment took
place in, the temperature altered enough to see a change and pattern
and to show that 30 minutes would be enough time to leave the
experiment to get decent and accurate results. It also showed that the
centre tube stayed warmer that the other tube.

Main test continued

Possible effectors of experiment


Distance from each penguin,

Amount of water,

Size of test tubes,

Temperature of water and of the surrounding.

Fair test

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I shall use equal amounts of water in each test tube. Each tube shall
be filled to the brim with hot water (52ml),

All the test tubes shall start equal temperature (70degrees),

All the penguins shall be in contact with each other,

I shall then fill a bucket with hot water above 70 degrees and measure
the temperature of it until it is at 70 degrees and then submerge the
test tube arrangement into it until they are all fill. I shall do this
as it will assure that all the test tubes start off at 70 degrees
unlike if I were to pour water into each individual test tube.

[IMAGE]

Plan

[IMAGE]

I shall put 70 degrees water in each test and wait for 30 minutes. The
diagram above has only 2 layers but the final huddle will have 4
layers and all the test tubes shall be touching as that is how the
penguins are in the wild. To put the water in the test tubes, I shall
fill a bucket with hot water above 70 degrees and measure the
temperature of it until it is at 70 degrees and then submerge the test
tube arrangement into it until they are all fill. By doing this I
shall have assured that all the test tubes start off at 70 degrees
unlike if I were to pour water into each individual test tube.

In the diagram above only test tubes 1 and 4 need to have the
temperature measured as tubes 1,2,3,5,6 and 7 will all have the same
temperature as the situation is same for all 6 of them. I shall do the
same thing for the final experiment. Out of the four layers of test
tubes only 4 tubes will need the temperature recorded. Thermometers
will be used to check the temperature of the 4 selected tubes and at
2.5 minute intervals over the full 30 minutes, the temperature will be
recorded for all 4 tubes.

After 30 minutes, cease recording the temperature and pack up
experiment.

Safety

The person submerging the test tubes shall wear gloves and use grips
to lower it into the water.

Everyone involved in the experiment shall wear safety goggles.

Apparatus

38 test tubes,

Rubber bands to secure test tubes,

A bucket,

Hot water,

3 kettles to heat up the water,

Goggles,

A pair of gloves,

4 Thermometers.

After experiment

Method

· I arranged 37 test tubes in 4 layers like shown below.

[IMAGE]

· I also got another single test tube which would be the solitary
tube.

[IMAGE]

· I then filled the test tubes with 70degrees water like stated in the
plan.

· I then inserted a thermometer into each of the five test tubes, the
4 in the huddle and 1 alone and then started the timer.

· Every 2.5 minutes, I recorded the temperature of each test tube.

Results

The results are recorded in the table shown below.

Temperature in degrees

Test tube number

start

2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

22.5

25

27.5

30

1

70

68

66

65

64

63

62

60

59

58

57

56

56

2

70

68

66

64

63

62

61

59

58

56

55

55

54

3

70

68

65

63

62

61

60

58

57

55

54

53

53

4

70

67

65

62

61

59

58

57

56

54

53

52

51

5

70

67

64

61

59

57

54

53

51

48

46

44

43

The below was the control experiment and was done to make sure there
were no mistakes.

Temperature in degrees

Test tube number

start

2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

22.5

25

27.5

30

1

70

69

68

66

65

64

63

62

61

60

58

57

56

2

70

68

67

65

64

63

62

61

59

58

56

55

55

3

70

68

67

65

64

62

61

60

58

57

56

54

54

4

70

68

66

65

63

62

60

59

58

56

54

53

52

5

70

67

64

61

59

57

54

53

51

48

46

44

43

I then averaged the two results and created one table of the two which
is now more accurate.

Temperature in degrees

Test tube number

start

2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

22.5

25

27.5

30

1

70

68

67

65

64

63

62

66

59

58

57

56

56

2

70

68

66

64

63

62

61

59

58

56

55

55

54

3

70

68

65

63

62

61

60

58

57

55

54

53

53

4

70

67

65

62

61

59

58

57

56

54

53

52

51

5

70

67

64

61

59

57

54

53

51

48

46

44

43

The Averaged table is the main table I will use. It is the average of
the two other tables and so is more accurate as it irons out any
mistakes that might have been made. The two original tables are
relatively the same showing that they were both done in fair
conditions and show the true results.

[IMAGE] The results show that all 4 test tubes in the huddle slowly
decreased in temperature and that the outer shells cooled down
slightly faster than the layers closer to the centre than it. It also
showed that the solitary test tube (test tube 5), cooled down faster
than all the other test tubes.

Analysis Looking at the results it shows that the solitary test tube
stayed warmer for less time than all of the test tubes in the huddle.
This proves that penguins in the huddle will stay warmer for longer
than the single penguin. Looking at the results, it also shows that
penguins closer to the centre of the huddle will also stay warmer for
longer than penguins on the outside of the huddle. This usually means
with penguins, that the larger, stronger penguins are found in the
middle as they fight to find the warmest point.

Evaluation

In answer to the original question,

(Why do penguins huddle to keep warm?)

The answer is; it's warmer for all the penguins involved to huddle
together and share body heat. Even though the penguins on the outer
layer of the huddle are not as warm as those in the centre of the
huddle, they are still warmer than any penguin by itself. Huddling
keeps penguins warmer and conserves energy.
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