Essay PreviewMore ↓
In the September 4 issue of the British. medical journal The Lancet, Canadian researchers report on how dying patients' "will to live" is likely to show "substantial fluctuation" due to changes in both physical and mental factors. Dr. Harvey Chochinov of the University of Manitoba and his colleagues assessed the "will to live" twice daily in 168 mentally competent cancer patients admitted to palliative care, and correlated this with a variety of other factors. The patients ranged in age from 31 to 89 years old; they survived an average of 18 days, though one woman lived more than 150 days. The factors with the most impact on the will to live were "depression, anxiety, shortness of breath, and sense of well-being." Which factor was most important varied with the stage of illness. During the earlier course of a patient's illness, anxiety was the dominant factor; depression became more important later, and shortness of breath was the chief factor suppressing a will to live when death became imminent. The study confirmed that, at least during much of a terminal illness's course, psychological factors weigh more heavily in a desire for death than factors such as physical pain.
Numerous US studies have established that the Americans most directly affected by the issue of physician-assisted suicide -- those who are frail, elderly and suffering from terminal illness -- are also more opposed to legalizing the practice than others are:
* A poll conducted for the Washington Post on March 22-26, 1996, found 50% support for legalizing physician-assisted suicide (Washington A18) Voters aged 35-44 supported legalization, 57% to 33%. But these figures reversed for voters aged 65 and older, who opposed legalization 54% to 38%. Majority opposition was also found among those with incomes under $15,000 (54%), and black Americans (70%).
* An August 1993 Roper poll funded by the Hemlock Society and other euthanasia supporters indicated that voters aged 18-29 supported "physician-aided suicide" 47% to 35%; voters aged 60 and older opposed it 45% to 35%. Hemlock's newsletter commented that "the younger the person, the more likely he or she is to favor this legislation." The newsletter added that "this is somewhat at odds with how Hemlock views its membership," since it sees itself as defending the interests of elderly citizens. (Humphry; Poll 9) A study of cancer patients found that terminally ill patients experiencing significant pain are more opposed to physician-assisted suicide than other terminally ill patients or the general public.
How to Cite this Page
"Factors Affecting Euthanasia." 123HelpMe.com. 30 Mar 2020
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- How does one let a patient or a family member breathe but not live. The practice of euthanasia or assisted suicide is “the painless killing of a patient suffering an incurable disease or a irreversible coma” (OxfordDictionaries). Euthanasia has many other names such as assisted suicide, physician-assisted suicide, and sometimes even “mercy killing”(“Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide”). To “pull the cord” when a patient is under coma or life support is called passive euthanasia. When a doctor directly guides a patient (with their consent) to end his or her life by lethal injection, this ethic is called voluntary or as active euthanasia.... [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Suicide, Illness]
1100 words (3.1 pages)
- Nurses feel responsible for their patient’s wellbeing and want to relieve patients of their suffering (Ersek, 2004). One option available for patients, depending on their state of residence, is voluntary/assisted euthanasia. The following essay will discuss voluntary/assisted euthanasia laws, nurses’ obligations to euthanasia, including ethical principle, and the impact on society. Nurses encounter a variety of patients, some in good health while others are terminally ill. . On average one in four nurse have receive requests from their patients to help end their suffering by assisting in euthanasia (Ersek , 2004).... [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Medical ethics, Patient]
1021 words (2.9 pages)
- Euthanasia The problem of euthanasia, like abortion and other controversial dilemmas of our times, divides society almost the whole of the Western world on its supporters and opponents. Euthanasia is generally referred to as a conscious choice of death, caused by various factors. In a narrow sense, euthanasia is when a person wishing to death, and the person inflicting death, assess the situation positively, as their welfare. We also distinguish active euthanasia, which involves the administration of suitable substances that lead to the death of the human body, and passive euthanasia, in which a person is deprived of resources and life-sustaining substances.... [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Human, Medical ethics]
1224 words (3.5 pages)
- Causes which affecting inflation rate in Australia - There are two types of cause which are affecting inflation rate of Australia . First is demand pull inflation and second cost push inflation. • The cause of demand inflation can be demand side conditions- Demand side conditions sometimes can be very strong which can affect the economy . In a cyclical way inflation goes up and down . such as profits increase in disposal, increases in administration spending and movement of economy. if any change happens in these aspects then it can cause of demand inflation.... [tags: Inflation, Monetary policy, Supply and demand]
1396 words (4 pages)
- Abstract This paper studies the details behind errors and accidents taking place in aviation maintenance. It states the human factors and how most of the misfortunes in the aviation industry happen because of them. The Federal Aviation Administration created a chapter on the 8083-30 General Book regarding this topic. The chapter discusses the twelve components of the “Dirty Dozen”. Any one of the dozen can result to an injury, or death, of a person on or off the flight. Considering the human factors in maintenance is absolutely necessary to improve safety and reliability and prevent injury and death.... [tags: Air safety, Aircraft]
2472 words (7.1 pages)
- According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, Euthanasia is an adjective that is defined as the act of practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy. Euthanasia is a topic that many people see differently, depending on others thoughts and beliefs they may see things differently, this can be outlined in the different types of euthanasia, how society views types of euthanasia in general and my views and the contrary of examples where euthanasia is questioned.... [tags: Euthanasia, Medical ethics, Voluntary euthanasia]
1220 words (3.5 pages)
- Of the vertebrates, birds of the class Aves are the most noticeable, the most melodious and the most beautiful. Birds with more than nine thousand species far put number other vertebrate groups except fishes” . (Hickman P.C Jr , et.al pg 582). Birds are the only vertebrates that have feathers and forelimbs modified for flight although many species do not use their wing for flight. Birds can be found all over the world including Guyana. There are many factors affecting birds in Guyana. Deforestation is one of the factors affecting birds on Guyana.... [tags: ecology, enviroment]
893 words (2.6 pages)
- Factors Affecting the Rate of Osmosis Plan Aim To find out if osmosis occurs in a potato, and to observe how different concentrations of a solution affect the rate of osmosis in the potato. What Is Osmosis. Before actually planning the experiment, I will do some research to find out about osmosis, and matters related to it, so that I can make predictions and work out a way to make this investigation fair and safe. Planning ahead would assist me in finding out how to do what, when to do it etc.... [tags: Papers]
1146 words (3.3 pages)
- External Factors Affecting a Business INTRODUCTION EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMPANY'S BUSINESS AND PROSPECTS There are many factors that affect the Company's business and the results of its operations, some of which are beyond the control of the Company. The following is a description of some of the important factors that may cause the actual results of the Company's operations in future periods to differ materially from those currently expected or desired. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to introduce the external factors affecting the jeans industry from a business view.... [tags: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework]
520 words (1.5 pages)
- Factors Affecting Learning To distinguish a student by their learning style, there must first be a review of the student’s abilities and the factors affecting their learning. When reviewing these factors there will be a sense of when the students responses are more consistent and help a teacher figure out when a student learns the best and how they learn as an individual. There are six different things that could affect the learning of a student: brain processing, senses, physical needs, environment, social needs, and emotional attitudes (Creative learning,1997).... [tags: A Level Essays]
2662 words (7.6 pages)
* Researchers at Duke University recently surveyed hundreds of frail elderly patients receiving outpatient treatment and their families. The elderly patients themselves strongly opposed physician-assisted suicide: only 34% favored legalization, with support even lower among female and black patients. But 56% of their younger relatives favored it, and they were usually wrong in predicting the elderly patients' views. (Koenig)
And how about legalized euthanasia in Oregon? The 2001 report from the Oregon Health Division on legally permitted physician-assisted suicides in 2000 provides no information on abuses of the state's guidelines, and is not designed to do so. The 27 assisted suicides reported for this third year of Oregon's "experiment" in lethal medicine are simply those cases which the physicians themselves chose to report. The total number of actual cases, not to mention the number of times various "safeguards" were ignored, remains concealed in the name of physician-patient confidentiality.
However, even the data released by physicians who assist suicides are disturbing. Twenty-seven Oregonians died last year from lethal overdoses of controlled substances deliberately prescribed by physicians, who invoked prescribing privileges granted to them by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration. The most significant changes compared to the previous year are as follows:
* A startling 63% of these patients (compared to 26% in 1999) cited fear of being a "burden on family, friends or caregivers" as a reason for their suicide. Some patients and families are learning all too well the deeper message of Oregon's law: terminally ill patients have received this special "right" to state-approved suicide not because they are special in any positive way, but because they are seen as special burdens upon the rest of us.
* 30% cited concern about "inadequate pain control" as a reason for their death (compared to 26% the year before), despite claims by the Oregon law's defenders that legalizing assisted suicide would improve pain control and eliminate such concerns.
* Also rising is the percentage of victims who were married (67%, up from 44%) and who were female (56%, up from 41%). It seems some older married women in Oregon are receiving the message that they are a "burden" on their husbands, and then acquiescing in assisted suicide.
* Despite a medical consensus that the vast majority of suicidal wishes among the sick and elderly are due to treatable depression, in only 19% of these cases (compared to 37% the previous year) did the doctor bother to refer the patient for a psychological evaluation.
The Supreme Court has been involved only to a limited extent with assisted suicide. The Court upheld two state laws absolutely prohibiting assisted suicide, stating that Washington state's law does not violate constitutional guarantees of "liberty" (Washington v. Glucksberg) and that New York's similar law does not violate constitutional guarantees of equal protection (Vacco v. Quill). Oregon's law selectively permitting assisted suicide for certain patients had been found by one federal district court to violate equal protection; that ruling was not before the Supreme Court (Lee). As Chief Justice Rehnquist said in his majority opinion in Glucksberg: "Lee, of course, is not before us... and we offer no opinion as to the validity of the Lee courts' reasoning. In Vacco v. Quill..., however, decided today, we hold that New York's assisted-suicide ban does not violate the Equal Protection clause" (Washington). To this day no appellate court in the country has ruled on the constitutionality of a law like Oregon's.
The Court also said nothing about assigning this issue to state as opposed to federal jurisdiction. In reviewing the Nation's longstanding tradition against assisted suicide, it cited federal enactments such as the Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 alongside state laws. Illustrating the government's interest in protecting terminally ill patients, the Court favorably cited an earlier decision upholding the federal Food and Drug Administration's authority "to protect the terminally ill, no less than other patients," from life-endangering drugs (Ibid. 2272).
What the Court did rule is that laws prohibiting assisted suicide (whether state or federal) are constitutionally valid and serve several important and legitimate interests.
Emanuel, Dr. Ezekiel et al.. "Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public." 347 The Lancet 1805 (June 29, 1996):1809
Humphry, Derek. "What's in a word?" Euthanasia Research & Guidance Organization 1993, Table 1-A.
Koenig, Dr. Harold et al.. "Attitudes of Elderly Patients and their Families Toward Physician-Assisted Suicide." 156 Archives of Internal Medicine 2240 (Oct. 28, 1996)
Lee v. Oregon, 891 F.Supp. 1429 (D. Or. 1995), vacated on other grounds, 107 F.3d 1382 (9th Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 118 S. Ct. 328 (1997).
"Poll Shows More Would Support Law Using Gentler Language," TimeLines (Jan.-Feb. 1994):9
Washington v. Glucksberg, 117 S. Ct. 2258, 2262 n. 7 (1997.
-- -- --. 117 S. Ct. at 2272, quoting United States v. Rutherford, 442 U.S. 544, 558. 1979.
Washington Post, April 4, 1996.