Ethical Principles Notes

Ethical Principles Notes

Length: 436 words (1.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Ethical Principles Notes

There are many ethical principles.
e.g. a woman has a right to control what happens to her body
we should respect life
we should do no harm to others
we should help others
there should be justice in the distribution of resources
Some principles are more general than others. So some principles are special cases of more general ones. For instance, the right to control what happens to one's body is a special case of the principle of autonomy, the right to control one's own life.

Hébert identifies 3 main general principles:
Autonomy, Beneficence, and Justice.
There may be other principles which are not special cases of these, e.g. respecting life.

We can generally all agree to general principles, such as autonomy and beneficence. The disagreement comes over cases where the principles conflict, e.g., in abortion right, autonomy conflicts with beneficence.

If a principle covers a case, it creates a duty.
For example, it a person wishes to do something you disagree with, you have a duty to respect her autonomy.

However, duties can be divided into two kinds:
"Prima facie" and "Absolute"

A prima facie duty is something you should do if there are no stronger reasons for doing something different. Prima facie duties can be trumped by other moral considerations.

An absolute duty is something you should do no matter what. Nothing can trump an absolute duty. (There is some dispute about whether any absolute duties exist.)

Rights and Duties
If a person has a right to X, then she must get X (other things being equal.)
If a person has a duty to do Y, then she must do Y (other things being equal).

Not all right and wrong can be expressed in terms of rights or duties.

But some good actions are not duties. Someone can go above and beyond the call of duty. I can be kind to someone I don't like even though I may have no moral duty to do so.

The fact that a person has a right to do Y does not mean that Y is good.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Ethical Principles Notes." 25 May 2019

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Notes On Principles Of Interpersonal Communication Essay

- 1. Outline the six (6) principles of interpersonal communication. (6 points) Unavoidable- It is unavoidable to send out a message. Meaning it is impossible to not communicate whether it is with facial expressions or words. Irreversible- words cannot be taken back there is not reset button. Once words have been spoken it is permanent forever, so it is irreversible. Symbolic – Symbols are labels that bring out emotion, describe an object and state certain events. A good example would be the word cup it represents something we drink out of....   [tags: Geert Hofstede, Cross-cultural communication]

Research Papers
1083 words (3.1 pages)

Principles of Confidentiality, Ethical Theories, and a Presented Case Study on the Z Family and the Practitioner's Ethical Decisions

- ... Without one of those three, there is no reason for a practitioner to break patient confidentiality, even when it has not been expressly stated that the information is not to be shared. Doing so would undermine the patient-practitioner trust, which if jeopardized, ruins the perspectives on medical confidentiality (Sankor et al, 2003). C4. Justification for keeping or breaking confidentiality When it comes to the decision for a practitioner to keep or break confidentiality, it comes down to the ethical guide that practitioners are expected to abide by....   [tags: difficult decisions, nursing practice]

Research Papers
1509 words (4.3 pages)

Essay about Notes On Trading Securities

- Trading Securities Earnings Trading securities are securities that an organization holds for the intended use to buy and sell for profit in the short-term (Balance Sheet, 2015). These securities usually will report at their fair market value and any gains or losses are included in the income statement. They classify themselves as either unrealized holding losses or gains on the statement of operations and this classification affects the operating income. The counter account on the balance sheet shows allowance for all adjusted short-term investments in the market (“Choosing the Appropriate Accounting”, n.d.)....   [tags: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles]

Research Papers
1133 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Analysis Of The Nine Principles Of Corporate Governance

- 1. Question 1 Presentation of Financial Statement A critical review is conducted on Michael Hill International Ltd.’s (MHI) corporate governance disclosures in the 2014 Annual Report for Year ended 30th June 2014. To evaluate and determine whether the company complies the requirement of each of the Nine Principles of Corporate Governance (Securities Commission New Zealand, 2011) listed below as the sub-titles. 1.1. Directors should observe and foster high ethical standards First of all, the board adopts the overall principles of Directors’ “Code of Proper Practice for Directors”, and considers that the policies and procedures of its corporate governance are consistent with NZX Corporate Gove...   [tags: Audit, Corporate governance, Auditing]

Research Papers
1101 words (3.1 pages)

Ethical Practices : Nike Company Essay

- The company which I chose to research and assess their ethical practices is the Nike Company. The company is the world’s leading maker of athletic clothing and footwear however, Nike has long been facing issues since the 1990’s for their mistreatment of employees and horrible working conditions in sweat shops overseas. This makes them a perfect example of a company who is trying to overcome the tarnished image consumers have placed on the company, by turning to a new set of ethical standards The first principle in the Better Business Bureau’s Ethical/Enterprising principles is transformation at the top....   [tags: Ethics, Business ethics, Better Business Bureau]

Research Papers
865 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Ethical Relativism And Cultural Relativism

- Cultures and societies around the world often have different moral beliefs. From an anthropological perspective, to deny cultures any validity in their moral beliefs would be a delusional ethnocentric refusal of cultural relativism. From a moral philosophical perspective, however, this is a conflicting matter. Is morality then simply a social construct based purely on arbitrary opinions. Are there no universal moral truths. In response, conventional ethical relativism puts forth the notion that there are indeed no objective moral truths....   [tags: Morality, Cultural relativism, Moral relativism]

Research Papers
936 words (2.7 pages)

Essay on Ethical Concerns Among Hospitals And Doctors

- As noted by Lovrien & Peterson (2011), reinforcing the association that exists among hospitals and doctors remains a priority of concerns during this day and time among senior managers of these healthcare institutes. According to Lovrien & Patterson (2011), once this joint venture between doctors and hospitals has been effectively established, then the ability for improving the delivery structure, ensuring care is managed properly, and maintaining appropriate monetary profits can exist among those healthcare establishments....   [tags: Health care, Physician, Patient, Medicine]

Research Papers
814 words (2.3 pages)

Professional Legal Ethical and Social Issues Essay

- ... Fig 1. Flowchart of legal issues source: JISClegal information ETHICAL ISSUES: Ethics defined as moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity (Oxford 2014). Ethical issues are considered to be morally good practices that should be followed and professional bodies involved. The issues like freedom of information, privacy, copyright legislations, legality of software and social media misuse are all within the use of IT. Ethics is not just about what is right and what is wrong (Garret & Lewis, 2008).it also includes moral systems and principles and stakeholder analysis....   [tags: lecture capture system]

Research Papers
2438 words (7 pages)

Essay about The Relationship between Form and Substance in Confucian Thought

- ... Confucius speaks often about the Tao, meaning a good way or path to achieving morally superior ends. The Way is search of the benevolence and the truth through observing li and ren. Confucius maintained the customary observation, Rites, and provoked them to follow him to create oneself by filling the form with substance. Rites help to realize the difference between form and substance and this creates the way to the benevolence. Let us define what is form and substance in other words it is like a vessel and matter, or body and soul and so on; everything that related to container and something that could fill it....   [tags: harmony, principles, tao, teaching]

Research Papers
612 words (1.7 pages)

Organ Transplantation and Ethical Considerations Essay

- Organ Transplantation and Ethical Considerations In February 2003, 17-year-old Jesica Santillan received a heart-lung transplant at Duke University Hospital that went badly awry because, by mistake, doctors used donor organs from a patient with a different blood type. The botched operation and subsequent unsuccessful retransplant opened a discussion in the media, in internet chat rooms, and in ethicists' circles regarding how we, in the United States, allocate the scarce commodity of organs for transplant....   [tags: Medicine Medical]

Research Papers
2780 words (7.9 pages)

Related Searches

Giving people the rights to decide on their own can mean giving them the right to make mistakes and do wrong. For example, we might give people the right to refuse life saving treatment even if we think that it is wrong to refuse such treatment.

We should distinguish between law and morality. Moral rights and duties are different from legal rights and duties. For example, you might have a moral duty to keep a promise to a friend, but such promises are rarely enforceable by law.
Return to