Grammar Basics

Grammar Basics

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Grammar Basics

1) Subject - The subject is the noun or the pronoun that performs the action of the verb in a sentence. In literary usage, the subject is the the idea about which something is being said. Predicate- The predicate of a sentence is the verb

2) Sentence - A sentence is a grammatical unit that is syntactically independent and has a subject that is expressed or, as in imperative sentences, understood and a predicate that contains at least one finite verb.
ex. Joey ran to catch the elevator.

3) Phrase - A phrase is two or more words in sequence that form a syntactic unit that is less than a complete sentence. A collection of grammatically-related words without a subject or without a predicate is considered a phrase.

4) Introductory Phrase - a phrased used in the beginning of a sentence of paragraph
ex. "Friends, Romans, countrymen....lend me your ears!"

5) Conjunction - A conjunction is the part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences...such as and, but, and because.

6) Clause - A clause is a collection of grammatically-related words including a predicate and a subject (though sometimes is the subject is implied). ex. I like to eat bagels Introductory Clause - An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.
ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

Dependant Clause - A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence.

ex. When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . .
7) Antecedent - The word, phrase, or clause that determines what a pronoun refers to.
ex. The teacher asked the children where they were going.
Relative Pronoun - A pronoun that introduces a relative clause and has reference to an antecedent ex. The child who is wearing the hat.

8) Introductory Conjunction -

9) I went to the movies with Joey, Andrew, Amy, and Michelle
Julie, Sara, and I went to the grocery store last night.

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10) Adjectives preceeding a noun ex. The dark, twisted hallway seemed to stretch for miles. ex. The small, hairy, fat man stared at me with a piercing glare.

11) Nonrestricive Modifiers - A non-restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that does not restrict or limit the meaning of the word it is modifying. It is, in a sense, interrupting material that adds extra information to a sentence. ex. Nick, being the smart one of the group, locked the door behind him to keep out unwanted guests.
ex2. Andrew, having earned an extra $50 in a card game, bought drinks for everyone that night.

12) Restrictive Modifiers - A restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that limits the meaning of what it modifies and is essential to the basic idea expressed in the sentence. You should not set off restrictive elements with commas. ex. My driving (with one exception) is exemplary ex2. My driving -- with one exception -- is exemplary.

13) Conjunctive Adverb - You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are ``also,'' ``consequently,'' ``finally,'' ``furthermore,'' ``hence,'' ``however,'' ``incidentally,'' ``indeed,'' ``instead,'' ``likewise,'' ``meanwhile,'' ``nevertheless,'' ``next,'' ``nonetheless,'' ``otherwise,'' ``still,'' ``then,'' ``therefore,'' and ``thus.'' A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independant clauses with the aid of a semicolon. ex. We did not have all the ingredients necessary; therefore, we decided to order pizza ex2. I waited in line for about 3 hours; finally, the door opened.

14) Apposotive - When two words, clauses, or phrases stand close together and share the same part of the sentence, they are in apposition and are called appositives.
ex. My brother the research associate works at a large polling firm

15) You will usually use the semicolon to link independant clauses not joined by a co-ordinating conjunction. Semicolons should join only those independent clauses that are closely related in meaning. ex. Abdominal exercises help prevent back pain; proper posture is also important. ex2. The auditors made six recommendations; however, only one has been adopted so far.

16) A punctuation mark ( : ) used after a word introducing a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series and often after the salutation of a business letter. ex. There is only one thing to do: confess now while you still have time ex2. Teh directo often used her favorite quote from Shakespeare's The Tempest: "We are such stuff as dreams are made......." ex3. The charter review committee now includes the following people:
the mayor the chief of police the fire chief

17) I do not recognize its(')? face.

18) I believe it's there for us to use.

19) I am not going there, even if it meant all the wealth in this world.

20) I should go borrow their chainsaw for a day.

21) I was sitting in my room, in front of my computer. It was a long morning, and I have been feeling under the weather for the past couple of days. I have been trying to get switched a different English class...one with a buddy of mine. Of course, my advisor is an idiot and I have yet to hear from him.

The afternoon rolled around steadily, and the time for class is approaching. I guess I have to print this out and head on over there, but every limb in my body ached with with the pain a virus brings to an unsuspecting victim.
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