Essay on VHL Tumor Suppressor Gene and Their Protein Products

Essay on VHL Tumor Suppressor Gene and Their Protein Products

Length: 1152 words (3.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction to Tumor Suppressor Genes and Their Protein Products

The other critical step in tumor initiation and progression, beside the activation of oncogenes, is the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Under normal function, a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) acts as a negative regulator for cell growth control by limiting cell proliferation and tumor development. For tumors to develop, it was found that both copies of the TSG must be lost either through mutation or deletion of the gene (1). It is not the TSGs themselves that limit cell growth, but it is the regulator proteins that they produce. The regulator proteins produced are involved in inhibiting cell production and survival. With the loss of TSGs and lack of regulatory proteins, the tumor progression can eventually lead to many types of cancer.

Overview of VHL Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant inheritance disorder that is associated with the loss and mutation of VHL tumor suppressor gene (2). VHL disease is a hereditary cancer that appears in 1 in 36,000 live births. Germline VHL gene mutations of this rare disorder are a predisposition to many cancers that can produce benign or malignant tumors due to a loss of the wild-type VHL allele given by the unaffected parents (3). Such tumors can be renal cysts and renal carcinoma, central nervous system hemangioblastoma, and phaeochromocytoma. Pancreatic islet cell tumors, gonadal tumors, endolymphatic sac tumors, broad-ligament cystadenomas have also been mentioned in relation to VHL disease (4). These tumors are found in a vast number of organs including the kidney, retina, CNS, pancreas, and adrenal gland. However, the majority of the cases for VHL disease involve renal cell carcinoma (3)....

... middle of paper ...

...el-Lindau Disease." Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 20.6 (2013): 842-47. Print.
8. Wang, Wen-Chung, Hui-Ju Chen, Wei-Pang Shu, Yi-Chang Tsai, and Yen-Chein Lai. "The Allele Frequency of Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) Tumor Suppressor Gene in the Taiwanese Population." Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 110.10 (2011): 646-51. ScienceDirect. Elsevier, 5 Aug. 2010. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .
9. Kondo, K. "The Von Hippel–Lindau Tumor Suppressor Gene." Experimental Cell Research 264.1 (2001): 117-25. Print.
10. Duchi, S., L. Fagnocchi, V. Cavaliere, A. Hsouna, G. Gargiulo, and T. Hsu. "Drosophila VHL Tumor-suppressor Gene Regulates Epithelial Morphogenesis by Promoting Microtubule and APKC Stability." Development 137.9 (2010): 1493-503. Print.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Tumor Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian Cancer

- TP53, also called tumor protein 53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes p53 and acts as a control center for the cell to act on when stressed (Brachova). Human p53 is a nuclear phsophoprotein of molecular weight 53kDa located on chromosome 17 containing 11 exons and 10 introns (Ling). One of its primary roles is as a transcription factor and in its active state is a homotetramer comprised of four 393 amino acid residues (Joerger , The tumor suppressor p53). Another main role p53 plays is as a tumor suppressor and once activated, protects against cancer by “functioning as a sequence-specific transcription factor, through protein-protein interactions, activating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis...   [tags: tumor protein, ovarian cancer, tp53]

Strong Essays
2901 words (8.3 pages)

Dna Of A Gene Can Cause Cancer Essay

- Mutations within DNA of a gene can cause genes by oncogenes, which result from a mutation that will be an activation of proto-oncogenes, while tumor suppressor genes can also cause cancer by a mutation that knocks out a gene causing it become inactivated. Proto-oncogenes are genes that normally help cells grow but when mutations occur or you get multiple copies of the same gene and it becomes permanently turned on it can become a bad gene. These bad abnormal genes survive and proliferate instead of normally undergoing a programmed apoptosis....   [tags: Cancer, DNA, Tumor suppressor gene, DNA repair]

Strong Essays
924 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Play a Role in Cancer

- There are two main types of genes that play a role in cancer: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Proto-oncogenes are regular genes that can become oncogenes if mutated and an oncogene is a gene that can lead to a tumor when mutated because it causes cells to divide unrestrainedly (Heidi 2008). On the contrary, tumor-suppressor genes slow down cell division. When tumor-suppressor genes do not function properly, cells can grow as rapidly as an oncogene (Heidi 2008). Tumor-suppressor genes involve the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are found in breast cells (Klugar & Park 2013)....   [tags: mutation, inherited, breast]

Strong Essays
797 words (2.3 pages)

Essay on Gene Therapy to Kill Tumor Cells Effectively

- Recent studies are focusing on targeted gene therapies to kill tumor cells effectively without adverse effects on other normal cells (27). Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7) gene is a novel tumor suppressor (2), that induces apoptosis in transformed cells without negatively affecting normal cells (28). Several studies have been performed to investigate its potential therapeutic effects and also to improve its functional properties (13). Here, we constructed three plasmids, including standard or fusion forms of mda-7 beside RGD peptides then their expression examined in some human cell lines....   [tags: effects, functionality, melanoma]

Strong Essays
817 words (2.3 pages)

Essay on Symptoms And Treatments Of Cancer

- 1,685,210 cases of cancer are projected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2016 by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health and 595,690 people are expected to die in 2016. Cancer is caused by an overgrowth of cells that causes a tumor to form. Some cancer is treatable but others are not. Cancer can occur in any part of the body. There are two forms of tumors which progress into cancer, benign and malignant. Benign tumors are usually easy to remove and do not spread throughout the body while malignant grow faster and can spread throughout the body....   [tags: Cancer, Oncology, Eye, Tumor suppressor gene]

Strong Essays
2067 words (5.9 pages)

Essay on Breast Cancer Gene : Brca2

- Breast cancer gene: BRCA2 gene I am writing this paper about the BRCA2 gene. I choose this topic because, earlier this year, my friend?s mother died due to breast cancer. That made me gain more interest in trying to know more about carcinogens and other cancer causative agents when I came across the gene of interest. The BRCA2 is known as the Breast Cancer gene found in the species Homo sapiens. The normal function of the BRCA2 gene is to provide instructions for making a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor....   [tags: Cancer, Breast cancer, DNA, BRCA1]

Strong Essays
1735 words (5 pages)

Breast Cancer 1 Early Onset Gene Analysis Essay

- Breast cancer is one of the most common and important diseases that affect women and ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality in American women1. These cancers are triggered by germline mutations on the C-terminal of a gene called BRCA1 (or “Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset Gene”) tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 17 at region 2 band 1, consists of 24 exons and encodes a multidomain protein of 1863 amino acid residues in human2. The BRCA1 proteins produced from BRCA1 gene help preventing cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way3....   [tags: breast cancer, cancer, brca1 protein]

Strong Essays
791 words (2.3 pages)

Gene Therapy and Cancer Essays

- Gene Therapy and Cancer In 1997, an estimated 1.38 million Americans will be newly diagnosed with cancer (Blaese, 1997). The treatments available only cure half of them. Many new strategies, including gene therapy are in developmental stages for treating cancer. Nearly half of all gene therapy trials currently under way deal with cancer and experts believe a number of these applications will be in use within the next three to five years (Lyon, 1997). Cancer is considered a genetic disorder. Studies have identified a small number of genes that must be mutated to bring about development of cancer or maintain the growth of malignant cells (Klug, 1996)....   [tags: Genetics Science Technology Medical Essays]

Free Essays
1998 words (5.7 pages)

The R72P Polymorphism in the TP53 Gene is a Modifier of Age at Onset of Huntington’s Disease

- Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by involuntary movements, progressive cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.[1] The disease follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with a prevalence of 1/10 000 among individuals of European descent.[2] The mutation underlying the disease is the abnormal expansion of the CAG repeat block in exon1 of the IT15 gene.[3] Four CAG repeat size intervals associated with varying disease risk were established....   [tags: Disease ]

Strong Essays
1083 words (3.1 pages)

Gene Therapy for Cancer Essay

- Cancer occurrs by the production of multiple mutations in a single cell that causes it to proliferate out of control. Cancer cells often different from their normal neighbors by a host of specific phenotypic changes, such as rapid division rate, invasion of new cellular territories, high metabolic rate, and altered shape. Some of those mutations may be transmitted from the parents through the germ line. Others arise de novo in the somatic cell lineage of a particular cell. Cancer-promoting mutations can be identified in a variety of ways....   [tags: Research Papers]

Strong Essays
4389 words (12.5 pages)