Introduction and Background
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder in which there is a persistent and developmentally abnormal level of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The physical cause or pathophysiology of this disease is currently unknown as the diagnosis is strictly based on relative or excessive increase in the symptoms such as overactivity, inattention or impulsivity which may otherwise also exist in normal individuals. The clinical symptoms considered for the detection of impulsivity in ADHD are often subjective or vague like ‘often blurts out answers before question have been completed’, ‘often has a difficulty awaiting turns’ and ‘often interrupts on others’ etc which is quite different from the basic science definition of impulsivity such as ‘an abnormally high preference of small, intermediate rewards over large delayed reward’ in a delay discounting task, ‘response during inter trial interval prior to the presentation of a cue associated with reward’ in a reaction time tasks. Till date no clear single gene has been successfully implicated exclusively in the aetiology of ADHD. However, significant associations of 4 different genes, D4 and D5 receptors and dopamine and serotonin transporters have been reported in several studies to play critical role in the aetiology. The list however is ever growing with some inclusions of inconclusive roles of DBH, HTR1B and SNAP-25 genes.
Developing animal models per se has not been easy for ADHD because of no clearly established pathological and etiological features and reliance upon heterogenous groups of symptoms found in variety of ADHD patients. This explains the existence of v...
... middle of paper ...
...guide clinical drug development in ADHD: lost in translation? British journal of pharmacology 164, 1107-1128.
Wickens, J.R., Macfarlane, J., Booker, C., and McNaughton, N. (2004). Dissociation of hypertension and fixed interval responding in two separate strains of genetically hypertensive rat. Behavioural brain research 152, 393-401.
Wickens, J.R., Tripp, G., and Gerhardt, G.A. (2007). Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): from gene to therapy. Journal of neuroscience methods 166, 293.
Williams, J. (2008). Working toward a neurobiological account of ADHD: commentary on Gail Tripp and Jeff Wickens, dopamine transfer deficit. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines 49, 705-711; discussion 711.
Report Submitted by
2nd semester, MS/PhD student, Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- This paper discusses the Bornstein PF model and traditional model of validity. It discusses how Bornstein maintains that it is important to use the PF model of validity. It discusses the tools used to group categories of mental activities and behaviors when responding to test. Furthermore, it discusses how Bornstein’s PF model could assess with validity in assessment of children with autism and difficulties with social functioning. Validity is how well a test or measurement tool measures what it purports to measure.... [tags: Psychometrics, Validity, Assessment, Autism]
1574 words (4.5 pages)
- The Validity of the Modal Model of Memory Memory can be thought of as the ability to process and retrieve information. In one hundred years of scientific research on this subject, there is still no dominant theory which explains human memory. One of the most prominent models in this area over the past thirty years has been the modal model of memory, which was originally devised by Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968. This model theorises a distinction between sensory, primary and secondary stores.... [tags: Papers]
2149 words (6.1 pages)
- Paper Topic 3 For this paper I will break down the following argument in terms of validity and soundness: If an argument has a true conclusion, then it is both valid and sound. If an argument is sound, then it is valid. An argument will have a true conclusion if it is sound. An argument has a false conclusion only if it is valid. If an argument has a false conclusion, then it is invalid. An argument is both valid and invalid. Therefore, an argument is sound if and only if it is sound. I have prepared a dictionary to more clearly distinguish the different premises.... [tags: Logic, Argument, Validity, Soundness]
1064 words (3 pages)
- Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCTs) have recently emerged as a central component of social policy across Latin America. The rationale of CCT programmes is to address short term poverty through monthly cash payments, and long term poverty by attaching conditions to mandatory school attendance and healthcare use. Most countries in Latin America have some kind of CCT programme (Cruz and Zigelhofer: 2014). Brazil’s CCT, Bolsa Familia (Family Allowance) is the largest CCT programme in the world.... [tags: Poverty, Economics, Conditional Cash Transfer]
1156 words (3.3 pages)
- Mexico’s Model Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Program for Fighting Poverty is PROGRESA or Oportunidades, which combines a traditional cash transfer program with financial incentives for positive behavior in health, education, and nutrition specifically in low-income children. The program gives cash exclusively to mothers as long as children regularly attended school and appointments for preventive health care. Mexico’s CCT program reflects the belief that caring for all dimensions of human capital has more socioeconomic returns than considering every impoverished person individually.... [tags: PROGRESA]
1712 words (4.9 pages)
- Summary Study of heat transfer in a gun barrel during firing is important for various reasons like estimating cook off temperature and erosion of barrel. This report assesses the heat transfer in a 155mm gun barrel with and without cooling channel using finite element analysis. The analysis was carried out using Pro/Mechanica software. The problem is modelled as a 2 D axisymmetric problem and convective loads and symmetry boundary conditions were used. The analysis was carried out in two phases.... [tags: Heat, Heat transfer, Convection, Thermodynamics]
1612 words (4.6 pages)
- Transfer of Learning Plan This was taken directly from our Group I Project This program utilizes the Malcolm Knowles model for learning transfer. Knowles envisioned learning as active and that the goal was to replicate as closely as possible the environment within the skill or knowledge will be applied. As detailed by Foley and Kaiser (2013), this type of learning transfer is active and utilizes role play and fictional scenarios in order to replicate where in the real world this information will be applied (p.... [tags: Learning, Educational psychology, Knowledge]
1058 words (3 pages)
- Organization Background and Purpose of Planned Change The products that my organization supports, services, and provide updates to have been in the US Air Force inventory since the mid 1980’s. My organization’s make-up is multigenerational with a high percentage of Traditionalists and Baby Boomers (Fox, 2011). While the employees are skilled and talented, the organization is suffering from single threaded skill areas and we are facing the high probability that we will lose the 30+ years of knowledge when our employees retire or transfer to other Boeing programs.... [tags: knowledge transfer in organizations]
2182 words (6.2 pages)
- Define internal and external validity. Discuss the importance of each. Internal validity refers to whether the effects observed in a study are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not some other factor. In other words there is a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity. In other words, it is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people.... [tags: Scientific method, Validity, Reliability]
1066 words (3 pages)
- 1. INSTRUMENT/INSTRUMENTATION VALIDITY Definition: Instrumentation validity determines where the instrument is actually measuring the proper content (Straub, Boudreau, & Gefen, 2004). Example: A practical example of instrumentation validity in business is the use and validity of annual employee satisfaction surveys or questionnaires. Firms place significant emphasis on addressing the employee satisfaction issues derived from the survey. My employer, AECOM, requires senior executives to developed actions plans to address and make changes based on the results of the survey.... [tags: Validity, Psychometrics, SAT, SAT Subject Tests]
963 words (2.8 pages)
- The Media's Impact on Aboriginal Identity
- Analysis of the Effects of the Arab Spring on Bahrain and Qatar
- Gender Roles in Peter Pan by J.M. Barrie
- Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Sensing and Motion Detector
- Experimental Utilization Of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate
- Pre-Hospital Intubation for Pediatric Trauma Victims