Vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity for a particular disease. It contains an agent that is made up of killed form of microbes, its toxins or surface proteins. Vaccines are preventive medicines for primary health care, critical for a nation’s health security. The WHO programme ‘Health for all’ by 2000, recommended universal immunization programme for all children under its Expanded programme on immunization (EPI).
EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION
It was started worldwide in 1974 and included DPT,Measles,BCG and Polio vaccine. In 1978,India started its own EPI that included DPT,BCG,Polio,Typhoid/Paratyphoid vaccines. In 1981, typhoid vaccine was removed from its schedule due to lower burden of disease.It was converted to Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) in 1985.
Universal Immunization Programme(UIP)
The programme’s target was 85% coverage till 1990. It included BCG,Polio,DPT,Tetanus,Measles..In 2007-08 hepatitis B vaccine was added in the programme. Presently UIP has included Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenza type b vaccines in some selected areas with greater disease burden.
Proposed UIP - Presently there are some vaccines that are proposed to be included in UIP standard vaccine schedule like IPV,Pneumococcal,Rotavirus,Rubella, HPV, Hepatitis A,Varicella,Typhoid.After inclusion of these vaccines in UIP,cost would rise to an estimate of 5200 crore rupees to cover 65% coverage and 8000 crore rupees for 85% coverage.
GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION
It brings together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in world’s poorest countries.Between 2000...
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...erested in vertical programs than horizontal programs because horizontal programs do not yield result in short time frame, in terms of number of deaths averted,percentage of vaccine coverage etc.The global leaders are unaware of the problems faced by the developing nations, which is graver than the need for vaccination.Also,there is no need to implement a particular vaccine in India when the disease burden is very low.
Back door entry of expensive vaccines in UIP - According to Evidence-based National Vaccine Policy (a 2010 policy document), the Government of India spends around Rs. 200 crore annually on the procurement of the six universal immunization programme (UIP) vaccines.Under the UIP, the inclusion
of DPT-HepB-HiB pentavalent vaccine has been estimated to cost Rs.1,200 crore, of which Rs.400 crore came from the Indian government and Rs. 800 crore from Gavi.The
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