Figure 1: photograph of the gel after electrophoresis
We can also see that the DNA bands have some bright dots in the center. Those are a result of the way the loading was performed. When the tip is very close or touches the bottom of the well, the DNA in the mixture is then concentrated in the one spot at the center when being pipetted out. This does not effect by any means the running of the bands but is more of a visual manifestation. Given all what have been said, we are not going to rely on this gel generate our data mainly because the ladder bands are not very clear. Therefore, an alternative gel is going to be used as to generate the standard curve and to determine the sizes of the fragments observed in the gel and to eventually attempt the different plasmid maps for giving the data resulting from each reaction. The figure below represents the alternative gel used, showing all the distances travelled by the samples loaded which are the distances measured from the center of each band to the bottom of the wells.
... middle of paper ...
...seven plasmid maps to represent each of the restriction sites for each of the enzymes used. The three plasmid maps with a single enzyme used are shown below.
HindIII PvuII BglI
The three plasmid maps with double restriction enzymes used are as follows:
HindIII + BglI PvuII + BglI PvuII + HindIII
Combining all plasmid maps with single and double enzymes, we can obtain a more general map with all restriction enzyme involved and representing all the recognition sites.
HindIII + BglI + PvuII
In the next section, we will analyze the results obtained from measuring the distances traveled and explain how the different molecular weights of all bands allowed us to figure out how many fragments are generated in each reaction and to construct the different plasmid maps. Potential experimental problems or deviations will also be discussed.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- 1. In the video we see Thorndike using a hungry cat and putting that cat in a box in which food is in clear site outside the box, all the cat has to do is to find its way out by pulling or stepping on the treadle or pulling on a wire. When Thorndike first placed the cat in the box he was unable to see any flashes of insight and the successful actions appeared by chance and once the cat realized how to escape they were able to do it quicker and quicker. He doesn’t believe that the animals understand the consequence of their behavior until it happens and this is where trial and error comes from.... [tags: Reinforcement, Reward system]
1157 words (3.3 pages)
- ... These drugs do have some medical uses but are carefully controlled when used for medical reasons and are illegal unless used in accordance with a prescription. Efforts are being constantly being made to ensure that sports can once again be played with true sportsmanship spirit. It is for countries and Participants to help in jointly maintaining the pride of participation and competition. Pressure is placed on athletes to perform better. The fierce competitive nature of the real sports world in with the peoples excellence has caused athletes to seek alternative means to enhance their performance.... [tags: football players, spirit, performance]
740 words (2.1 pages)
- Imagine a world without cell phones, personal computers, MP3 players, cars, and television. Life without those pieces of technology would be drastically different. In the past century, the world has seen an unprecedented number of technological advancements. However, these advancements are often taken for granted. Most people do not realize the complexity of the processes that occur when they use technologies like the Internet or computers. Nevertheless, are the devices that people use in their day-to-day lives essential.... [tags: Technology]
1079 words (3.1 pages)
- Teratogens, are substances such as drugs, chemical compounds, pollutants, certain illnesses and emotional disorders, capable of interfering with the development of an embryo and fetus. The effects of teratogens vary depending on the type, for example Stress which is the brains response to stressors (certain life events), that one perceives as challenging or threatening. During the Stress response, hormones such as cortisol are released and it is these hormones that can at the chronic level have toxic effects.... [tags: embryo, fetus, development]
1030 words (2.9 pages)
- Demonstrative communication describes nonverbal and unwritten communication. This communication can be conveyed through facial expressions, tone of voice and body language. How the message is received can vary greatly depending on these factors. As cited in Lavan (2009) “about 55% of interpersonal messages are conveyed nonverbally”. A positive experience is one where all parties feel at ease. When people are comfortable they are more receptive to the message. A speech about a charity will garner more support if the audience feels good about the speaker.... [tags: non-verbal, message, body language]
685 words (2 pages)
- "The ethics and value of retaining body parts for a forensic post-mortem. In your essay explain what the terms forensic post-mortem and ethics mean and discuss the positive and negative aspects of body part retention" The retention of body parts has caused concern in many parts of the world. Whether the parts are retained during surgery or post-mortem it has been debated since the seventeenth century. The unclear legal status of the corpse together with a variety of cultural and spiritual views of significance of the dead body has lead to the use of human tissue from the dead for research or medical training to be controversial.... [tags: Health]
1160 words (3.3 pages)
- The first video game console was invented by Ralph H Baer. He invented the brown box which featured seven games such as table tennis, volley ball, hand ball, soccer, golf, checkers and target shooting in 1968. It was later released in 1972 known as the odyssey gaming system. It costed just 100 dollars at that time. Advances in computing power, graphics technology has enabled significant advances in video gaming technology. Initially, several games were developed to run on the processing power of personal computers.... [tags: video gaming technology, behavioral analysis]
911 words (2.6 pages)
- Mass media is a part of society that helps connect people from all over the world. It does this through television, magazines, film and social media. These aspects of media, when used in the right way, can benefit society; however, mass media often shows a distorted view of the facts that people often take as the truth. This is often the case when it comes to the media’s effect on how women view their bodies. Since the media’s creation of the “ideal” body type, which is known to be tall and thin, body objectification has become a serious issue.... [tags: Media, Body Image, Women]
1925 words (5.5 pages)
- Advertising is always about appearance. It is also about information and what really satisfies people. Undoubtedly that advertisement of woman has been increased dramatically and obviously in such a way that turn out to be an important part of people’s lives. Recently, with advertising developments, there are more and more prospective is shown to the public. It cannot be denied that advertisement consist of negative scenes that shape females identity. Nevertheless, majority of individuals in modern societies deem that, such advertisements can caused so many harmful effects to women gender identity, such as low self-esteem.... [tags: Body Image]
1387 words (4 pages)
- Wireless: from Marconi's Black-box to the Audion Wireless is a methodical account of the early development of wireless telegraphy and the inventors who made it possible. Sungook Hong examines several early significant inventions, including Hertzian waves and optics, the galvanometer, transatlantic signaling, Marconi's secret-box, Fleming's air-blast key and double transformation system, Lodge's syntonic transmitter and receiver, the Edison effect, the thermionic valve, and the audion and continuous wave.... [tags: Wireless: from Marconi's Black-box to the Audion]
789 words (2.3 pages)