Discrimination is the unequal treatment of individuals based on their group membership rather than their individual qualities (Foster, 2006, p. 179). Discrimination comes in many forms, all of which the Jewish community has been subjected to. Ethnic or racial profiling is using ethnic markers, such as a kippah (traditional Jewish skull cap) or having a “Jewish sounding” name, to assess the likelihood of a potential crime. The Nazi regime required Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names in 1938 and ordered Jews to sew a yellow Star of David on their clothing as a clear indication if they were Jewish (The History Place, 1997). Exclusion is when people are denied certain positions, s...
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...rt to Christianity were expelled (Bergen, 2009, p. 5). But even converts were viewed with suspension because they had “Jewish blood,” which showed Jewishness as an ethnicity, not only as a religion. The Catholic Church accused Jews of draining the blood of Christian children in order to make matzoh, a cracker-like bread. The leader of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, was publicly against Jews, and approved Christians to “set their synagogues and schools on fire” (Hochstadt, 2004, p. 13). Martin Luther wrote, “dear Christian, be advised and so not doubt that next to the devil, you have no more bitter, venomous, and vehement foe that a real Jew, who earnestly seeks to be a Jew…” (Hochstadt, 2004, p. 13). Antisemitism preconditions led right into the 20th century World Wars, when Jewish communities were slaughtered and several thousands were massacred at once.
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