Users Of A Cochlear Implant Essay

Users Of A Cochlear Implant Essay

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Users of a cochlear implant (CI) have significant problems understanding speech in a noisy environment, despite their good performance in quiet (Wilson and Dorman, 2008a,b). Speech intelligibility in noise can be improved by adding an (amplified) low frequency acoustic signal to the electric stimulation of the CI to the same or to the non-implanted ear (e.g., Cullington and Zeng, 2010; Dunn et al., 2010; Sheffield et al., 2015). The combination in the same ear is called electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) and its use has proved beneficial even if only low frequencies are present via acoustic stimulation, e.g., frequencies with as upper limit the speaker 's fundamental frequency (F0) (Zhang et al., 2010). In some cases, EAS benefit is synergistic or super-additive, e.g., performance with combined electrical and acoustic hearing in the same ear is better than the sum of the performances with electric-only hearing or acoustic-only hearing (Wilson and Dorman, 2008a,b; Brown and Bacon, 2009a,b). One reason for EAS benefit is likely to be the improved ability to undertake sound source segregation (Carlyon, 2004). The role of pitch (the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency) in source segregation has been reviewed by Oxenham (2008). For monaural listening, an increasing difference in F0 or onset (and, to a lesser extent, offset) between target and masker improves performance (Carlyon, 2004), and F0 cues in particular, are likely to be better represented by EAS than electric-only hearing for some listeners with sufficient frequency and dynamic residual hearing range (Turner et al., 2008) because F0 discrimination for vocoded speech is rather weak (Qin and Oxenham, 2005). Another way that F0 information may give EAS benefit is to pr...

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... study was to assess the perceptual attributes of F0 that are most important to providing EAS benefit for monaural listening. To address this, we determined the extent to which speech recognition improved for normal-hearing listeners when they were listening to vocoded speech in a multi-talker babble background and a manipulated acoustical tone was added to the vocoded speech with a frequency corresponding to the instantaneous fundamental frequency of the speech signal (F0). In particular, the influence of a decrease in frequency selectivity for the additional tone was investigated. This was done by changing (1) the frequency specificity (replacing the pure tone by a narrowband noise signal centered at F0), (2) the frequency range of F0 (the modulation depth of the F0-contour), and (3) the absolute value of F0 (by down-shifting F0 in frequency with a constant value).

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