Leander recognizes the paradoxical situation faces by employing private military companies’ forces to solve the security problems in Africa. As a matter of fact, the line between public and private security orders in weak African states has already been blurred (Leander, 2005, p.606). Private forces are inevitable actors in those African states, thus on the one hand, it is argued that encouraging PMCs in Africa is able to restore the order. In the special case of weak African states, the poor conditions and frequent conflicts call for such a “force multiplier” as the PMCs.
Leader concludes four reasons that PMCs should be considered to organize the chaos in Africa. First, PMCs are external forces to break the cycles of violence in Africa (Leander, 2005, p.607). T...
... middle of paper ...
...ch PMCs played important role in many major combat, while PMCs fill the gap between U.S army and locals and maintain the reconstruction projects after war, democracy issues also need to be considered. The hiring of PMCs is mostly directly through government and military forces, which means citizens can be easily excluded from the decision process when their money are spent on buying military services, possibly, to invade another country.
Therefore, to conclude, the emergence of PMCs as crucial roles in Africa is an inevitable course. The wars do not find PMCs, but PMCs find wars and sell themselves. They will be frequent actors in the combat which can maintain and improve the local security. While on the contrary, to build a mature and secure system for PMCs, a lot more unstable factors need to be taken into consideration by international and national actors.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Water has become a very controversial issue in the United States and around the world. As populations increase and resources decrease, the way we use our resources and keep populations safe become more and more important. Throughout the world there are nearly 1.1 billion people who do not have access the clean drinking water. 5 Most of these 1.1 billion people are located in poor areas and do not have the financial means to build the infrastructures needed to provide water to the citizens of their country.... [tags: Private vs. Public Ownership of Water]
963 words (2.8 pages)
- The city of Johannesburg is both the largest and richest city in the nation of South Africa. It is also one of the nine cities selected to host the FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup, although among those cities it has the unique distinction of being home to two stadiums, including Soccer City, the venue for the final. The chance to shine on the international stage has led to massive renovations of the stadiums and tourist-focused areas of the city. These renovations create numerous jobs, which are frequently taken by migrant workers from other regions.... [tags: South Africa]
1567 words (4.5 pages)
- INTRODUCTION In the past two decades, economic analysts and policy makers have recognized that the financial system can significantly contribute to economic growth. Strong evidence proved that economies having well-developed financial systems grow faster than similar economies lacking one. Moreover, countries characterized by diversified financial systems and developed non-bank financial institutions are more flexible to economic shocks [Nasr (2004)]. A sight on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region today reveals that the MENA region experiences stagnant economic growth in the last years as it struggles to promote complete prosperity for growing population and to reduce the unempl... [tags: Bank, Economics, Stock exchange, Economy]
952 words (2.7 pages)
- Is Renewable Energy an economically viable option for South Africa. South Africa mainly focuses on producing and making energy from mining coal. Although this is very effective and has been used for a very long time. The problem is that fossil fuels are limited because of the time needed to create them over millions of years and the tones of pressure that needs to be applied to form fossil fuels. The process in South Africa goes as follows, first deep mines are dug out to reach and get all the fossil fuels, which is a very big negative because of the high risk of injury and death cases, one of the other negatives is also that it has a large impact on the environment with all the unwanted dus... [tags: wind turbines, fossil fuel]
835 words (2.4 pages)
- Case Studies: Environmental and Water Solutions Inc. Company Background Environmental and Water Solutions Inc. is an environmental and water resources engineering firm. Environmental and Water Solutions Inc. provides lasting and integrated solutions in water, environment, transportation, energy, and facilities to public and private clients. As a full-service consulting, engineering, construction, and operations firm, Environmental and Water Solutions delivers exceptional client service, quality results and enduring value across the entire project life cycle.... [tags: workforce, minorities, global companies]
955 words (2.7 pages)
- Table of Contents: 1. Introduction to FSC 2. Controlling Entities of the FSC 3. Benefits of FSC accreditation 4. Process of obtaining the FSC certification 5. Problems the FSC pose for South Africa 6. Bibliography 1) Introduction to FSC The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international, non-profit organization which was established in 1993 by multiple stakeholders. The FSC’s primary objective is to positively influence sustainable and responsible forest management in plantations worldwide.... [tags: companies, applicable laws, regulations]
1905 words (5.4 pages)
- China’s increased involvement in African countries has drawn the attention of many and must be observed with objectivity. China has put billions of dollars into numerous African countries. It has been adamant in its involvement with Africa as it shows potential for investment in the private sector as well as governmentally. Though some are optimistic about China’s real interests, many question whether their actions are mimicking past colonialism. This paper uses works from the authors Joshua Eisenman and Joshua Kurlantzick, Jing Gu, and Thompson Ayodele and Olusegun Sotola to outline the ways in which the partnership between Africa and China are advantageous, and how African countries can ma... [tags: Africa, Madagascar, African Union, South Africa]
943 words (2.7 pages)
- This paper looks at the way the guy I mean people rationalize their use of skin bleaching products. It also looks at the forces that have led to this predicament of shame and ugliness in any skin tone other than white skin. I have also looked into the psychological and physical effects of colorism on the people of Ghana. The idea of Colorism is not new. It is only recently that a name has been placed on it and it has been studied. Countries that have people with various skin tones have always practiced ways to lighten their skin.... [tags: colorism, beauty, advertisements]
1031 words (2.9 pages)
- Advertisers for transgenic foods use the world’s starvation rates as a way to convince the public to get on board with altered food; claiming the modification will end hunger. Conway (2000), paints the picture that while developed countries are complaining about obesity problems, non-developed countries are starving. “By the year 2020, there will be about an extra 1.5 billion mouths to feed (Coway, 2000) #. These statistics guilt the reader into asking how they can help lower the rate of hunger.... [tags: Genetically modified food]
1207 words (3.4 pages)
- Question: Are products like product red that are based on compassionate consumerism sustainable methods of slowing down the AIDS Crisis and other health crisis in African countries. Annotated bibliography: Youde, J. (2009). Ethical consumerism or reified neoliberalism. Product (RED) and private funding for public goods. New Political Science, 31(2), 201-220. This article provides an excellent analysis about the product RED and its ability to harness private interest and consumer power to address the AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria crisis.... [tags: AIDS, Africa, Tuberculosis, HIV]
1383 words (4 pages)